Current studies show that what goes on labels is an important consideration for manufacturers, since more than seventy percent of shoppers read food labels when considering whether to buy a product. A recent controversy as to whether labels on prepared foods should educate or merely inform the consumer is over, and a consumer group got its way. The group had maintained that product labels should do more than simply list how many grams of nutrients a food contains. Their contention was that labels should also list the percentage of a day's total nutrients that the product will supply to the consumer, because this information is essential in planning a healthy diet. A government agency disagreed strongly, favoring a label that merely informs the consumer, in other words, a label that only lists the contents of the products. The agency maintained that consumers could decide for themselves if the food is nutritious and is meeting their daily needs. The consumer group, in supporting its case, had cited a survey in which shoppers were shown a food label, and were then asked if they would need more or less of a certain nutrient after eating a serving of this product. The shoppers weren't able to answer the questions easily when they were not given a specific percentage. This study, and others helped get the new regulation passed, and now food products must have the more detailed labels.


  1. label: n. [C]a piece of paper or other material that is stuck onto something and gives information about it 标签,标记

  2. consideration: n. [U]formal careful thought and attention【正式】斟酌,考虑

  3. manufacturer: n. [C]a company or industry that makes large quantities of goods 制造商;制造公司,制造厂

  4. gram: n. [C]the basic unit for measuring weight in the metric system 克(公制基本重量单位)

  5. nutrient: n. [C]a chemical or food that provides what is needed for plants or animals to live and grow 养分;营养物,营养品

  6. contention: n. [U]formal argument and disagreement between people【正式】争论,争端;口角

  7. favor: v. to think that a plan, idea etc is better than other plans, ideas etc 赞同,支持(计划、想法等)

  8. maintain: v. to strongly express your belief that something is true 断言(某事)属实;坚持说?

  9. nutritious: adj. food that is nutritious is full of the natural substances that your body needs to stay healthy or to grow properly(食物)有营养的,滋养的,营养价值高的

  10. cite: v. to mention something as an example, especially one that supports, proves, or explains an idea or situation (尤指为支持、证明或解释一种观点或情况而)引证,援引

  11. regulation: n. an official rule or order 规则;条例;法令


  Last week we talked about Anne Bradstreet and the role of women in the Puritan colonies. Today I want to talk about some other women who've contributed to American history—some famous and some not-so-famous. The first woman I'd like to talk about is Molly Pitcher. Those of you who are familiar with the name may know her as a hero of the American Revolution. But, in fact, there never was a woman named Molly Pitcher. Her real name was actually Mary Ludwig Hays. She got the nickname Molly Pitcher for her acts of bravery during the Revolutionary War. As the story goes, when Mary's—or Molly's—husband, John Hays, enlisted in the artillery, Mary followed, like many other wives did. She helped out doing washing and cooking for the soldiers. She was known to be a pretty unusual woman. She smoked a pipe and chewed tobacco. Anyway, in the summer of 1778, at the Battle of Monmouth, it was a blistering hot day, maybe over a hundred degrees, and fifty soldiers died of thirst during the battle. Molly wasn't content to stay back at camp. Instead, she ran through gunshots and cannon fire carrying water in pitchers from a small stream out to the thirsty American soldiers. The relief that she brought with her pitchers of water gave her the legendary nickname Molly Pitcher. The story also says that she continued to load and fire her husband's cannon after he was wounded. They say she was so well liked by the other soldiers that they call her "Sergeant Molly." In fact, legend has it that George Washington himself gave her the special military title.


  1. Puritan: adj. 清教徒的

  2. nickname: n. [C]绰号,昵称

  3. bravery: n. [U]勇敢

  4. enlist: v. 征募,应募,参军

  5. artillery: n. 炮兵部队

  6. chew tobacco: 嚼烟草

  7. blistering: adj. 酷热的

  8. gunshot: n. [C]枪击

  9. cannon: n. [C]大炮

  10. pitcher: n. [C]罐壶,(带柄和倾口的)大水罐

  Molly Pitcher

  Molly Pitcher

  她名叫麦考利(Mary Hays McCauly),但人们称呼她为莫利水壶(Molly Pitcher)。

  玛丽海斯(Mary Hays)是威廉海斯(William Hays)的妻子,他是独立战争时,曾参与蒙茅斯郡一役的炮兵。

  战争源于来自费城的柯林顿将军(General Henry Clinton)想要带领英军行军穿越新泽西;在气候灼热的1778年6月28日清晨,华盛顿将军命令李将军(General Charles Lee)攻击蒙茅斯郡附近的英军,而英军及美军则在炙热的气温下打了一整天的仗。

  玛丽海斯在枪林弹雨中,背负着一只水壶为精疲力竭和受伤的美国士兵供应饮水,而当她的丈夫海斯因不堪灼热而不支倒地时,莫利立即接替丈夫的炮手位置;这是美国历史上,第二度有女性参战的战役(第一次为1776年时,参与福特华盛顿(Fort Washington)防御战的科尔宾(Margaret Corbin)) 。

  为表彰她的英勇贡献,华盛顿将军任命她为未受军官衔的军官,从此以为,她就被称做中士莫利(Sergeant Molly);位于战争遗址上的纪念碑则提用来纪念她的英勇贡献。


  In the few minutes that remain of today's class, I'd like to discuss next week's schedule with you. Because I'm presenting a paper at a conference in Detroit on Thursday, I won't be here for either Wednesday's or Friday's class. I will, however, be here for Monday's. Next Friday, a week from today, is the midterm exam, marking the halfway point in the semester. Professor Andrews has agreed to administer the exam. In place of the usual Wednesday class, I've arranged an optional review session. Since it is optional, attendance will not be taken; however, attending the class would be a good idea for those worried about the midterm. So, remember: optional class next Wednesday; midterm, Friday.

  【生词摘录】   1. Detroit: the largest city in Michigan and a major Great Lakes port; center of the United States automobile industry; located in southeastern Michigan on the Detroit river across from Windsor 底特律   2. administer: v. to organize the way a test or punishment is given, or the way laws are used 执行,实施   3. optional: adj. if something is optional, you do not have to do it or use it, but you can choose to if you want to 可选择的,非强制的   4. attendance: n. [C,U]the number of times that you go to a meeting, class etc that is held regularly 出席率,到场次数


  Welcome to Everglades National Park. The Everglades is a watery plain covered with saw grass that's home to numerous species of plants and wildlife. At one and a half million acres, it's too big to see it all today, but this tour will offer you a good sampling. Our tour bus will stop first at Taylor Slough. This is a good place to start because it's home to many of the plants and animals typically associated with the Everglades.

  You'll see many exotic birds and, of course, our world famous alligators. Don't worry, there's a boardwalk that goes across the marsh, so you can look down at the animals in the water from a safe distance. The boardwalk is high enough to give you a great view of the saw grass prairie. From there we'll head to some other marshy and even jungle like areas that feature wonderful tropical plant life. For those of you who'd like a closer view of the saw grass prairie, you might consider renting a canoe sometime during your visit here. However, don't do this unless you have a very good sense of direction and can negotiate your way through tall grass. We'd hate to have to come looking for you. You have the good fortune of being here in the winter—the best time of year to visit. During the spring and summer, the mosquitoes will just about eat you alive! Right now they're not so bothersome, but you'll still want to use an insect repellent.


  1. Everglades National Park: 大沼泽地国家公园

  2. saw grass: 克拉莎草;加州砖子苗

  3. acre: n. [C]a unit for measuring area, equal to 4,047 square metres 英亩

  4. sampling: n. items selected at random from a population and used to test hypotheses about the population 取样,抽样,采样

  5. exotic: adj. approving seeming unusual and exciting because of being connected with a foreign country 【褒义】异国风情的,外国情调的:exotic birds 外国的奇异鸟类

  6. alligator: n. [C]a large animal with a long mouth and sharp teeth that lies in the hot wet parts of the US and China 短吻鳄

  7. boardwalk: n. [C]AmE a raised path made of wood, usually built next to the sea【美】(常在海滨)用木板铺成的小道