曾有人说过,老外眼中句子分为3个档次,最差的是主动句,较好的是被动句、倒装句等,最好的是nominalization(名词化)的句子,因为这样的句子最学术最适合写论文。如果在托福写作中能用到一些名词化的句子,必将为自己的托福写作冲刺高分带来帮助。那么到底什么是名词化的句子呢?

  简单说,名词化即是动词或形容词被用作名词的现象。比如动词转成名词:discovery→discovery, move→movement, refuse→refusal;再比如形容词转成名词:careless→carelessness, difficult→difficulty, intense→intensity。

  在以下四种情况里我们可以合理将句子名词化表达:

  1. 谓语动词的宾语部分

  原句:I do not know either what she meant or what he intends.

  名词化:I do not know either her meaning or his intentions.

  2. 结合被动形式

  原句:If people decide without enough persuasive information,...

  名词化:If a decision is made without enough persuasive information,...

  3. 取代诸如从句中“the fact that”的用法

  原句:The fact that I denied what he accused me of impressed the jury.

  名词化:My denial of his accusations impressed the jury.

  更好的名词化:

  a. When I denied his accusations, I impressed the jury.

  b. In denying his accusations, I impressed the jury.

  4. 名词化部分用在there is/are的后面

  原句:We demand that the government stop taxing entertainment.

  名词化:There is a demand for an end to taxation on entertainment.

  原句:The floods considerably eroded the land.

  名词化:There was considerable erosion of the land from the floods.

  而以下的这些名词化表达则显得画蛇添足,并无必要:

  1. 名词化部分跟在动词后面

  原句:The police conducted an investigation into the matter.

  改后:The police investigated the matter.

  2. 名词化部分作为主语

  原句:Our discussion is concerned with a tax cut.

  改后:We discussed a tax cut.

  3. 连续进行名词化

  原句:

  a. First, she reviewed the evolution of the dorsal fin.

  b. There was a first a review of the evolution of the dorsal fin.

  改后:First, she reviewed how the dorsal fin evolved.

  4. 连接部分名词化

  原句:Their cessation of hostilities was because of their personnel losses.

  改后:They ceased hostilities because they lost personnel.

  原句:The instability of the motor housing did not preclude the completion of the field trials.

  改后:Even though the motor housing was unstable, the research staff completed the field trials.

  各位TOEFLer在托福写作备考中,可以结合具体文章需要,进行名词化表达的尝试,合理巧妙地使用可以有效提升我们的托福写作水平。

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