Both the reading passage and the lecture discuss the functions of the shafts found in the Great Pyramid. However, the lecture questions the accuracy of the theories proposed in the reading one by one.
In the first place, whereas the author argues that the shafts are built for ventilation, the speaker refutes this for two reasons. Firstly, unlike the higher shafts, the shafts of the lower chamber are unable to reach the outer wall, which makes it impossible to bring in fresh air. Secondly, since the four shafts are quite similar, they are likely to have the same function. But in this case, only two of them are capable of bringing in fresh air, while the others are not. For these reasons, the lecturer asserts that these shafts are not for ventilation.
In the second place, the lecturer discounts the reading passage’s claim that there’s a link between the shafts and the alignment of stars. He goes on to say that the connection between stars and gods didn’t appear until the later period of ancient Egypt. Nevertheless, the pyramid was built during the earlier years and the star alignment theory simply didn’t exist at that time. This directly contradicts the reading passage which states that the shafts are built for religious reasons.
The final point on which the author and the lecturer disagree with each other is whether the shafts are built in order to help king’s soul travel to afterlife. The reading makes the claim that these shafts are likely to be passageways for the king’s soul. In contrast, the lecturer contends it doesn’t necessarily mean the passageway should be an actual shaft. He gives an example of other pyramids building symbolic passageways for their dead kings, which indicates that ancient Egyptians believed souls could easily cross through walls and did not need any actual passageway. This goes against the idea in the reading passage.
Which one of the following values is the most important to share with a young child(5-10 years old)?
3.Being well organized
Childhood is the golden age of people’s lives because it is a time of physical growth and great leaps forward intellectually and socially. Being helpful, honest and well organized are values that parents and educators try to instill in children from a very young age, but I would argue that among these values, honesty would be the most important one to share with a young child.
First and foremost, honesty is the cardinal principle of conducting oneself. Imparting honesty into children can hold them accountable for their behavior and teach them how to distinguish right from wrong from a young age. Unlike adults, children are normally unaware of the consequence of telling lies, and teaching them the value of honesty can help them realize how to act with integrity and confidence. For example, children who are conscious of being honest are more likely to contribute positively to the whole society in the future and will never defraud their clients and customers in workplace. In contrast, students who are dishonest may plagiarize other people’s thesis and fail to achieve success even though they perform well at school.
Besides, being honest can help us win the trust and respect from others, even from those who are unfamiliar with us. It is widely known that childhood is an important period for children to learn lifelong social and emotional skills they need. Therefore, making them capable of being honest helps children learn how to behave in a more socially acceptable way. Just imagine, an honest child always gets along well with everyone at school, with a bunch of good friends around him. When he grows up, people are more willing to collaborate with him as well as to give him a hand when he gets into troubles. On the contrary, a dishonest child will be looked down upon by others and be regarded as a public enemy.
Undeniably, being helpful and well organized are both important qualities, which do benefit children in their own way. The young generation can learn responsibility and find enjoyment in helping others. But the fact is, 5 to 10-year-old children are too young to be able to take care of themselves, not to speak of giving a hand to other people. As for the organizational skill, it just makes little sense since kids of that age are naturally active and naughty. Overemphasis on children’s organizational ability would have an adverse impact on their growth. If children are required to be well organized at any time, their creativity and imagination will be stifled.
To sum up, I’m not saying that being helpful and well-organized are of no use, but compared to the importance of honesty, these two values can be crossed off the priority list.