2017年9月17日托福阅读机经预测独家版!对于托福阅读来说,重要的还是平时的备考和积累。在考前很短时间考生可以重点复习科学类、考古类、历史类资料。下面智课网为大家带来了2017年9月17日托福阅读机经预测内容,供大家考前复习参考。

  科学类

  The Birth of Photography,参考TPO22-P2

  Title:The Birth of Photography

  Perceptions of the visible world were greatly altered by the invention of photography in the middle of the nineteenth century. In particular, and quite logically, the art of painting was forever changed, though not always in the ways one might have expected. The realistic and naturalistic painters of the mid- and late-nineteenth century were all intently aware of photography—as a thing to use, to learn from, and react to.

  Unlike most major inventions, photography had been long and impatiently awaited. The images produced by the camera obscura, a boxlike device that used a pinhole or lens to throw an image onto a ground-glass screen or a piece of white paper, were already familiar—the device had been much employed by topographical artists like the Italian painter Canaletto in his detailed views of the city of Venice. What was lacking was a way of giving such images permanent form. This was finally achieved by Louis Daguerre (1787-1851), who perfected a way of fixing them on a silvered copper plate. His discovery, the "daguerreotype," was announced in 1839.

  A second and very different process was patented by the British inventor William Henry Talbot (1800- 1877) in 1841. Talbot's "calotype" was the first negative-to-positive process and the direct ancestor of the modern photograph. The calotype was revolutionary in its use of chemically treated paper in which areas hit by light became dark in tone, producing a negative image. This "negative," as Talbot called it, could then be used to print multiple positive images on another piece of treated paper.

  The two processes produced very different results. The daguerreotype was a unique image that reproduced what was in front of the camera lens in minute, unselective detail and could not be duplicated. The calotype could be made in series, and was thus the equivalent of an etching or an engraving. Its general effect was soft edged and tonal.

  ...

  Early American Printing Industry

  科学类

  The Birth of Photography

  Early American Printing Industry

  农业类

  Agricultural Society in Eighteenth- Century British

  America

  Water Management in Early Agriculture

  经济类

  Effects of the Commercial Revolution

  Seventeenth-Century European Economic Growth

  考古类

  Environmental Impact of the Anasazi

  The Collapse of the Mays

  The Chaco Phenomenon

  社会类

  Population Growth in Nineteenth-Century Europe

  Hunting and the Setting of Inner Eurasia

  生物类

  Extinctions at the End of the Cretaceous

  The Cambrian Explosion

  The Extinction of the Dinosaurs

  How Animals in Rain Forests Make Themselves Heard

  Sociality in Animals

  Dinosaurs and Parental Care

  Habitat Selection

  Temperature Regulation in Marine Organisms

  Cell Theory

  Poikilotherms

  Forest Succession

  The Role of Diapause

  The Identification of the Genetic Material

  How Plants and Animals Arrived in the Hawaiian Islands

  Constraints on Natural Selection

  天文类

  Surface Fluids on Venus and Earth

  Origin of the Solar System

  Comets

  文化艺术类

  The Origins of Writing

  Live Performance

  The Origins of Theater

  The Development of Printing

  Early Theories of Continental Drift

  Attempts at Determining Earth’s Age

  How Soil is Formed

  Earth’s Energy Cycle

  Thermal Stratification

  The Climate of Japan

  The Role of the Ocean in Controlling Climate


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