转折：but， however， yet， nevertheless
让步：although，though，even though， despite，in spite of
比较对比：more/less than， as…as ， while， whereas， unlike
条件：if， only if， except， unless， provide that， as long as
因果： because (of) ，since， as， why， for， therefore， hence， thus， consequently， lead to， as a result (of)，result in， result from， reason， A contribute to B， attribute/ascribe A to B， explain， come from， so A that B，A be responsible for B
Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage?
Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
A. Whigs were able to attract support only in the wealthiest parts of the economy because Democrats dominated in other areas.
B. Whig and Democratic areas of influence were naturally split between urban and rural areas， respectively.
C. The semi-subsistence farming areas dominated by Democrats became increasingly isolated by the Whigs' control of the market economy.
D. The Democrats' power was greatest in poorer areas while the Whigs were strongest in those areas where the market was already fully operating.
这句话的原句本身就比较简单，而且两分句由whereas连接存在着一定的对比。先找出原句的逻辑：Whigs—areas fully integrated into market economy[ whereas表转折]Demo—areas： farming， isolated， languishing
A：Whigs—only in wealthiest parts[ because] Demo—other areas， 这个选项不仅滥用了绝对词only，而且无中生有了不存在的因果关系，可以排除。
B：Whig and Demo influence areas were naturally split. 原文并没有提，排除。
C：Demo’s farming areas 愈发isolated←?(弱因果)Whig’s control.捏造了愈发isolated和因果关系，可以排除。
D：Demo—areas： poorer[while表转折]Whig—areas： market was fully operating.这个选项和原文的逻辑基本相同，只是把两个分句的位置变了，所以这个可以选~
再来看个TPO上的例子~(Cave art in Europe—TPO 4)
Perhaps， like many contemporary peoples， Upper Paleolithic men and women believed that the drawing of a human image could cause death or injury， and if that were indeed their belief， it might explain why human figures are rarely depicted in cave art.
Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
A.Upper Paleolithic people， like many contemporary peoples， believed that if they drew a human image in their cave art， it would cause death or injury.
B.Many contemporary people believe that the drawing of a human image can cause death or injury， so they， like Upper Paleolithic people， rarely depicted human figures in their cave art.
C.If Upper Paleolithic people， like many contemporary peoples， believed that the drawing of a human image could cause death or injury， this belief might explain why human figures are rarely depicted in cave art.
D.Although many contemporary peoples believe that the drawing of a human image can cause death or injury， researchers cannot explain why Upper Paleolithic people rarely depicted human figures in their cave art.
[Upper Paleolithic believed that (drawing could cause death/Injury)] || [if so] —explain (弱因果)—[ why figures rarely depicted]
A.UP believed that (if they drew…， it would cause death/injury).在第一次审查时候，它的逻辑与选项的前半部分比较吻合，先过关
B. [contemporary people believed that (drawing cause death/injury)]—因果—they rarely depicted figures. 选项因为原文的定语like contemporary people而试图偷换主语，引出的结果自然也是不存在的~排除
C. [If UP believed that (drawing could cause death/injury)] || this explains — [why figures rarely depicted].选项的逻辑和原句很吻合，先过关
D. [Although contemporary people believe (drawing could cause death/injury)]—转折—[researchers can’t explain (why figures rarely depicted)].选项是一个转折关系复句，表达的逻辑也和原文有比较大的出入，排除