One of your friends is often late for events and appointments, which makes other angry. You would like to help your fiend. What advice will you give your fiend to help avoid this problem in the future? Use specific details and examples in your advice.
Some teachers think that it is important for students to sit in assigned seats, that is, to sit in the same place every day in class.Other teachers think that students should be allowed to choose where they will sit, and they allow them to sit in different seats on different days.Which do you think is better? Explain why.
Make Textbook List Available Earlier
Students always have to wait until the beginning of the semester to fnd out which textbooks they will need for their new courses. But since a lot of students register early for their courses, I think that the list for each course should be available immediately at the time of registration.This would give students more time to shop around to find less expensive textbooks. And it would also allow them to start work on the teaching for their new courses early.
Narrator: Now listen to two students discussing the letter.
Man: Hey, did you see Alexandra’s letter?
Girl: Yeah, what do you think?
Man: Well, it’s great. She really makes some good points, like the thing with the university bookstore is, if you buy a brand new textbook, it can be pretty expensive and they usually have only a few used textbooks around. They’re cheaper of course, but they sell out quickly.
Girl: That’s true.
Man: So this would give students time to look around on their own. You know, maybe they could find the books they need online, get books a few months ahead of time using the internet.
Girl: I agree.
Man: So this way students might be able to save a little money.
Girl: Right, so what do you think about the second point, about the reading assignment?
Man: I agree with that, too. It just makes a lot of sense, because things get really busy when the semester first starts and it can be hard to find time to keep up with all of the assignments, but students usually have some free time right before the start of the semester.
Girl: So we’d have a good opportunity to do some preparation.
The man expresses his opinion about the proposal described in the letter.Briefly summarize the proposal.Then state his opinion about the proposal and explain the reasons he gives for holding that opinion.
The memories people form when they learn names and facts are different from the memories they form when they learn how to perform a task.These memories of performing particular actions are called procedural memories. Procedural memories are memories of the process of performing a task that become automatic with practice. Once a task has been practiced, or repeated many times, procedural memories are established.These procedural memories allow people to perform the action automatically and to recall it relatively easily many years later.
Now listen to part of a lecture on this topic from a psychology class.
Professor: I've experienced this kind of thing myself. When I was a boy, I took guitar lessons. And in my first lessons, my guitar teacher, she showed me how to hold the guitar and how to place my fingers on the strings. Every day when I got home, I would play the guitar for hours. And after a couple years spending time like this playing at home, I can just pick up my guitar and play music without thinking about it.
But after college, I stopped playing. And for years, I never played or even picked up a guitar. Then the other day I found my old guitar. I was amazed to discover that when I picked it up I knew how to play, even though I hadn’t played for years. I just picked it up and right away I found that I still knew where to place my fingers to play the right notes.
Now I couldn’t explain to you exactly how I was moving each finger or exactly why I had to press the string at one point and not another, but I could still play my favorite songs.
Explain how the example from the lecture illustrates the concept of procedural memory.
Narrator: Listen to a conversation between two students.
Man: Hey, Lisa, how are you? Any big plans for summer break?
Girl: Well, I thought I knew what my plans were... But now I'm not sure.
Man: How come?
Girl: Well, you know how we are required to take a foreign language course before we graduate.
Girl: I want to take it this summer since I am graduating next year and I will have a busy course schedule, so I signed to take a Russian course online over the summer because I am hoping to take a trip to Russia at some point.
Man: Online? That’s cool. You wouldn’t have to stay around campus and you could do it for home.
Girl: Exactly. You do everything over the internet, but not enough people signed up for the class so they cancelled it. Now I don’t know what to do, l still need to fulfill the requirement.
Man: Wow, could you take a Russian class on campus this summer instead of the online course?
Girl: Yeah, there is a regular Russian class being offered on campus and it has space, so I could sign up and just stay in the dorms this summer and live on campus.
Girl: I was looking forward to being home the summer, though, and spending some time with my family. My sister is coming back from China, she’s working there for a year and I haven’t seen her.
Man: Oh, that’s disappointing.
Girl: I checked though and I could take a different language course online. There is one thing offered in Spanish.
Man: Great! So why don’t you just do that, you’d be able to spend time with your sister.
Girl: Yeah, but I am not that excited by taking Spanish. I thought it would be fun to learn Russian. It's more interesting to me, though at least this way I could get the requirement out of the way. So, I don't know...
Briefly summarize the problem the speakers are discussing.Then state which of the two solutions from the conversation you would recommend.Explain the reasons for your recommendation.
Narrator: Listen to part of a lecture in a biology class.
Professor: So of course many animals live in groups with others of their species. And there are benefits to living together in groups. It can help animals survive. But there are also certain disadvantages. So today we are going to talk about two disadvantages of living in groups for animals.
One disadvantage is that animals that live in groups may be more visible to predators. If there's a big group of animals, predators are more likely to spot them than they would an individual animal on its own. So sometimes animals in a group may be more vulnerable to being captured by predators. For instance, Sardines, really small fish, swim in groups, and other larger ocean animals, like some kind of whales, eat them. So while a whale probably wouldn’t notice one Sardine, it would see a group of Sardines very easily and thus be able to capture them for food.
Another disadvantage has to do with caring for the young. In a large group, there are a lot of young animals around and it can be difficult for animals to find or identify their own young. And they may end up taking care of other animals to young instead. So their own young may not get the care they need. For example, some bats live in caves. And with one type of bat, millions of them live together in the same cave. And with young bats so crowded together in the cave. It's sometimes hard for a mother bat to find her babies. So when a mother bat returns from finding food to feed her babies, she might end up feeding the babies of another mother bat, meaning her own babies don’t get fed.
Using points and examples from the lecture, explain two disadvantages of living in groups for animals.