One of your friends is often late for events and appointments, which makes other angry. You would like to help your fiend. What advice will you give your fiend to help avoid this problem in the future? Use specific details and examples in your advice.
Well, if one of my friends cannot do things on time, I would like to give some suggestions to him as follows. Firstly, set an alarm as possible as he can. Once he has an important schedule, an alarm gives him a reminder on time not to be late. And what is more, he can set the voice of alarm loud so that he will not forget. Secondly, ask somebody else to do things together. As we all know, doing things together with others rather than alone is kind of like intangible force. To sum up, these are the two of the advice that I can give to him.
Some teachers think that it is important for students to sit in assigned seats, that is, to sit in the same place every day in class.Other teachers think that students should be allowed to choose where they will sit, and they allow them to sit in different seats on different days.Which do you think is better? Explain why.
From my perspective, I prefer the latter option. One obvious advantage of it is that students are able to have discussions conveniently with other group members who are focusing on the same projects. Proximity do facilitate this kind of discussions. Also, it may enable students to establish relationship with more people in the same class. If the seat is fixed, a student’s social connection is very likely to be confined to those around him. A typical case of it is that my nephew who was assigned to sit in the front row in high school, could not even name those sat in the back row after one semester.
Make Textbook List Available Earlier
Students always have to wait until the beginning of the semester to fnd out which textbooks they will need for their new courses. But since a lot of students register early for their courses, I think that the list for each course should be available immediately at the time of registration.This would give students more time to shop around to find less expensive textbooks. And it would also allow them to start work on the teaching for their new courses early.
Narrator: Now listen to two students discussing the letter.
Man: Hey, did you see Alexandra’s letter?
Girl: Yeah, what do you think?
Man: Well, it’s great. She really makes some good points, like the thing with the university bookstore is, if you buy a brand new textbook, it can be pretty expensive and they usually have only a few used textbooks around. They’re cheaper of course, but they sell out quickly.
Girl: That’s true.
Man: So this would give students time to look around on their own. You know, maybe they could find the books they need online, get books a few months ahead of time using the internet.
Girl: I agree.
Man: So this way students might be able to save a little money.
Girl: Right, so what do you think about the second point, about the reading assignment?
Man: I agree with that, too. It just makes a lot of sense, because things get really busy when the semester first starts and it can be hard to find time to keep up with all of the assignments, but students usually have some free time right before the start of the semester.
Girl: So we’d have a good opportunity to do some preparation.
The man expresses his opinion about the proposal described in the letter.Briefly summarize the proposal.Then state his opinion about the proposal and explain the reasons he gives for holding that opinion.
In the letter, Alexandra proposes the school to offer the list of textbooks needed for each course earlier. In this way, students can have more time to find cheaper textbooks and start working on their new courses early. In the conversation, the man supports her proposal. The man states that brand new textbooks are usually expensive and the used one, which are much cheaper, sell out quickly. And if the book list are available earlier, students may be able to get textbook online with less money. In addition, the man agree that at the beginning of each semester, students are often quite busy, hard to keep up with all the assignments. If they can have the textbooks earlier, they may have more time to make preparation ahead of the semester.
The memories people form when they learn names and facts are different from the memories they form when they learn how to perform a task.These memories of performing particular actions are called procedural memories. Procedural memories are memories of the process of performing a task that become automatic with practice. Once a task has been practiced, or repeated many times, procedural memories are established.These procedural memories allow people to perform the action automatically and to recall it relatively easily many years later.
Now listen to part of a lecture on this topic from a psychology class.
Professor: I've experienced this kind of thing myself. When I was a boy, I took guitar lessons. And in my first lessons, my guitar teacher, she showed me how to hold the guitar and how to place my fingers on the strings. Every day when I got home, I would play the guitar for hours. And after a couple years spending time like this playing at home, I can just pick up my guitar and play music without thinking about it.
But after college, I stopped playing. And for years, I never played or even picked up a guitar. Then the other day I found my old guitar. I was amazed to discover that when I picked it up I knew how to play, even though I hadn’t played for years. I just picked it up and right away I found that I still knew where to place my fingers to play the right notes.
Now I couldn’t explain to you exactly how I was moving each finger or exactly why I had to press the string at one point and not another, but I could still play my favorite songs.
Explain how the example from the lecture illustrates the concept of procedural memory.
范文：Procedural memory refers to the memory of performing a task that become automatic with practice. The professor uses his own experience as an example to explain this term. When he was a little boy, he took guitar lessons, where his teacher taught him the way to hold guitar and place his finger on the stings. After several years’ repetitive practice, he was able to play guitar automatically. Then one day, he found his guitar and was so surprised that he still knew how to play the guitar, even though he had stopped playing guitar for years after college. This explain that procedural memories enable people to perform a task automatically with less difficulties.
Narrator: Listen to a conversation between two students.
Man: Hey, Lisa, how are you? Any big plans for summer break?
Girl: Well, I thought I knew what my plans were... But now I'm not sure.
Man: How come?
Girl: Well, you know how we are required to take a foreign language course before we graduate.
Girl: I want to take it this summer since I am graduating next year and I will have a busy course schedule, so I signed to take a Russian course online over the summer because I am hoping to take a trip to Russia at some point.
Man: Online? That’s cool. You wouldn’t have to stay around campus and you could do it for home.
Girl: Exactly. You do everything over the internet, but not enough people signed up for the class so they cancelled it. Now I don’t know what to do, l still need to fulfill the requirement.
Man: Wow, could you take a Russian class on campus this summer instead of the online course?
Girl: Yeah, there is a regular Russian class being offered on campus and it has space, so I could sign up and just stay in the dorms this summer and live on campus.
Girl: I was looking forward to being home the summer, though, and spending some time with my family. My sister is coming back from China, she’s working there for a year and I haven’t seen her.
Man: Oh, that’s disappointing.
Girl: I checked though and I could take a different language course online. There is one thing offered in Spanish.
Man: Great! So why don’t you just do that, you’d be able to spend time with your sister.
Girl: Yeah, but I am not that excited by taking Spanish. I thought it would be fun to learn Russian. It's more interesting to me, though at least this way I could get the requirement out of the way. So, I don't know...
Briefly summarize the problem the speakers are discussing.Then state which of the two solutions from the conversation you would recommend.Explain the reasons for your recommendation.
The woman in the conversation planned to take a Russian course online this summer, but the problem is that this course was cancelled since not enough people sign up for the course. And she is required to take a language course in order to graduate next year. The man suggests her to take a Russian class on campus, but the woman wants to be with her family this summer and she hasn’t seen her sister for a year. Another option is that she could take another language course online, a Spanish course. But the woman is not that interested in Spanish. If I were her, I would choose the latter option. Although it seems to be a little boring to learn Spanish, she can fulfill the needs for graduation and have more time to be with her family. And maybe, she may find it is more interested than expected to learn Spanish.
Narrator: Listen to part of a lecture in a biology class.
Professor: So of course many animals live in groups with others of their species. And there are benefits to living together in groups. It can help animals survive. But there are also certain disadvantages. So today we are going to talk about two disadvantages of living in groups for animals.
One disadvantage is that animals that live in groups may be more visible to predators. If there's a big group of animals, predators are more likely to spot them than they would an individual animal on its own. So sometimes animals in a group may be more vulnerable to being captured by predators. For instance, Sardines, really small fish, swim in groups, and other larger ocean animals, like some kind of whales, eat them. So while a whale probably wouldn’t notice one Sardine, it would see a group of Sardines very easily and thus be able to capture them for food.
Another disadvantage has to do with caring for the young. In a large group, there are a lot of young animals around and it can be difficult for animals to find or identify their own young. And they may end up taking care of other animals to young instead. So their own young may not get the care they need. For example, some bats live in caves. And with one type of bat, millions of them live together in the same cave. And with young bats so crowded together in the cave. It's sometimes hard for a mother bat to find her babies. So when a mother bat returns from finding food to feed her babies, she might end up feeding the babies of another mother bat, meaning her own babies don’t get fed.
Using points and examples from the lecture, explain two disadvantages of living in groups for animals.
The lecture is focusing on two disadvantages of living in a group for animals. One disadvantage is that animals living in groups are more visible and vulnerable to predators. Take sardines as an example. They swim in groups and they are prey for some large animals such as whales. Although a whale may hard to notice one little Sardine, it is able to see a group of them and capture them for food. Another disadvantage is that living in groups set great barriers for animals to identify their own young and thus have them in good care. For example, one type of bats live together in the same cave with millions of them. With too much bats in the same cave, a mother bat may find it’s hard to find her own baby and she may end up feeding the babies of another mother bat, leaving her own babies with no food.