托福词汇分类之岩石!岩石我们都见过,但是在托福考试中岩石你知道是怎么表达的吗?岩石的分类你又知道多少呢?托福听力中地质学这门学科是同学们以前接触比较少的,所以在考试时这门学科一定不能掉链子。今天智课网给大家汇总了岩石的三大类,希望能帮助到大家!

  岩石(rock)一般分为三大类:

  (一)火成岩(igneous rock)是指岩浆冷却后(地壳里喷出的岩浆,或者被融化的现存岩石),成形的一种岩石。

  常见的火成岩有:

  花岗岩 granite: a very hard grey rock, often used in building

  玄武岩 basalt: a type of black rock produced by volcanoes

  黑曜石 obsidian: a type of rock that looks like black glass

  浮石 pumice: very light grey rock from a volcano

  granite basalt obsidian pumice

  托福TPO真题链接:

  Dating was used to establish that half of the sandstone in the samples was formed at the same time the granite in the Appalachian Mountains was formed. TPO-1

  (二)沉积岩(sedimentary rock)是在地表不太深的地方,将其他岩石的风化产物和一些火山喷发物,经过水流或冰川的搬运、沉积、成岩作用形成的岩石。

  常见的沉积岩有:

  煤 coal: a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock

  砂石 sandstone: a type of soft yellow or red rock

  石灰石 limestone: a type of rock that contains calcium

  页岩 shale: a smooth soft rock which breaks easily into thin flat pieces

  石膏 gypsum: a soft white substance

  白云石 dolomite: a kind of sedimentary rock

  coal sandstone limestone shale gypsum dolomite

  托福TPO真题链接:

  It was formed from sandstone that solidified somewhere between 150 and 300 million years ago. TPO-1

  Another difference, very important today for distinguishing between older lake beds and newer ones, is the location of the limestone formations. TPO-9

  (三)变质岩(metamorphic rock)是指受到地球内部力量(温度、压力、应力的变化、化学成分等)改造而成的新型岩石。固态的岩石在地球内部的压力和温度作用下,发生物质成分的迁移和重结晶,形成新的矿物组合。

  常见的变质岩有:

  大理石 marble: a type of hard rock that becomes smooth when it is polished

  石英石 quartzite: hard metamorphic rock consisting essentially of interlocking quartz crystals

  板岩 slate: a dark grey rock that can easily be split into flat thin pieces

  片麻岩 gneiss: a laminated rock similar to granite

  marble quartzite slate gneiss

  希望智课网给大家总结的托福词汇分类之岩石相关词汇能对大家有一定的帮助,更多相关知识点大家可以继续咨询我们的在线老师,老师一定会为大家做出专业的解答。


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