本文是为了帮助大家顺利备考,智课网给大家带来了托福tpo41阅读题目文本及答案解析【Navajo Art】,主要内容是阅读题目的文本信息以及相应答案解析,想要获得原文资料,提供手机号来下载吧!

  Navajo Art

  (原文略)

  Paragraph 1

  The Navajo, a Native American people living in the southwestern United States, live in small scattered settlements. In many respects, such as education, occupation, and leisure activities, their life is like that of other groups that contribute to the diverse social fabric of North American culture in the twenty-first century. At the same time, they have retained some traditional cultural practices that are associated with particular art forms. For example, the most important traditional Navajo rituals include the production of large floor paintings. These are actually made by pouring thin, finely controlled streams of colored sands or pulverized vegetable and mineral substances, pollen, and flowers in precise patterns on the ground. The largest of these paintings may be up to 5.5 meters in diameter and cover the entire floor of a room. Working from the inside of the design outward, the Navajo artist and his assistants will sift the black, white, bluish-gray, orange, and red materials through their fingers to create the finely detailed imagery. The paintings and chants used in the ceremonies are directed by well-trained artists and singers who enlist the aid of spirits who are impersonated by masked performers. The twenty-four known Navajo chants can be represented by up to 500 sand paintings. These complex paintings serve as memory aids to guide the singers during the performance of the ritual songs, which can last up to nine days.

  1. The word “precise” is closest in meaning to 【词汇题】

  A. colorful

  B. exact

  C. delicate

  D. complex

  答案:B

  解析:Precise, 精确的,明确的。

  Colorful, 富有色彩的。Exact,准确的,精确的。Delicate, 微妙的,精美的,易碎的。Complex, 复杂的,合成的。所以选项B正确。

  2. The word “enlist" in the passage is closest in meaning to   【词汇题】

  A. assist

  B. require

  C. describe

  D. recruit

  答案:D

  解析:Enlist, 使入伍,征募。

  Assist, 帮助,促进。Require, 要求,命令。Describe, 描述,形容。Recruit, 聘用,征募。所以D选项正确。

  3. What can be inferred from paragraph 1 about the Navajo ritual chants?   【推理题】

  A. There is a large number of them.

  B. Each of them corresponds to a particular sand painting.

  C. They are difficult to remember.

  D. They do not take long to perform

  答案:C

  解析:根据原文“ The twenty-four known Navajo chants can be represented by up to 500 sand paintings.”可看出,一共只有24首纳瓦霍人圣歌,数量并不是很多,所以A选项错误。原文说这24首圣歌可以被多达500幅沙画所描绘表现出来,但是并没有说每首圣歌都分别对应一幅沙画,因此B选项错误。第一段最后一句话说“which can last up to nine days.”可看出整个表演时间会长达九天,而D选项说表演时间并不长,因此D选项错误。所以C选项正确。

  4. According to paragraph 1, all of the following are true of many important Navajo rituals EXCEPT【否定事实信息题】

  A. They involve the creation of large, detailed images.

  B. They include performers whose faces are covered.

  C. They take place indoors.

  D. They are performed without elaborate planning.

  答案:D

  解析:根据rituals一词,可定位至原文第四句话。原文“ These are actually made by pouring thin, finely controlled streams of colored sands or pulverized vegetable and mineral substances, pollen, and flowers in precise patterns on the ground.”对应A选项。

  “ The paintings and chants used in the ceremonies are directed by well-trained artists and singers who enlist the aid of spirits who are impersonated by masked performers.”中的“masked performers”对应B选项。

  “Working from the inside of the design outward”对应C选项。

  选项D在文中并未被提及,所以D选项正确。

  Paragraph 2

  The purpose and meaning of the sand paintings can be explained by examining one of the most basic ideals of Navajo society, embodied in their word hozho (beauty or harmony, goodness, and happiness). It coexists with hochxo ("ugliness," or "evil," and "disorder") in a world where opposing forces of dynamism and stability create constant change. When the world, which was created in beauty, becomes ugly and disorderly, the Navajo gather to perform rituals with songs and make sand paintings to restore beauty and harmony to the world. Some illness is itself regarded as a type of disharmony. Thus, the restoration of harmony through a ceremony can be part of a curing process.

  本文是托福tpo41阅读题目文本及答案解析【Navajo Art】。

  5. It can be inferred from the discussion of illness and curing in paragraph 2 that 【推理题】

  A. the Navajo consider illness to always have a supernatural cause

  B. rituals involving songs and sand paintings may be used to treat an illness

  C. when a Navajo is ill, ugly and disorderly sand paintings are made

  D. after a serious illness, a Navajo will take part in a ceremony

  答案:B

  解析:根据原文“ the Navajo gather to perform rituals with songs and make sand paintings to restore beauty and harmony to the world. Some illness is itself regarded as a type of disharmony.”可看出,纳瓦霍人聚集在一起表演歌曲并制作沙画是为了使世界恢复美丽以及和平,一些疾病本身就被看作是一种不和谐。B选项为同意替换,其中Some illness is itself regarded as a type of disharmony对应B选项中的treat an illness。所以B选项正确。

  Paragraph 3

  Men make sand paintings that are accurate copies of paintings from the past. The songs sung over the paintings are also faithful renditions of songs from the past. By re­creating these arts, which reflect the original beauty of creation, the Navajo bring beauty to the present world. As relative newcomers to the Southwest, a place where their climate, neighbors, and rulers could be equally inhospitable, the Navajo created these art forms to affect the world around them, not just through the recounting of the actions symbolized, but through the beauty and harmony of the artworks themselves. The paintings generally illustrate ideas and events from the life of a mythical hero, who, after being healed by the gods, gave gifts of songs and paintings. Working from memory, the artists re-create the traditional form of the image as accurately as possible.

  6. The word “faithful” in the passage is closest in meaning to 【词汇题】

  A. modern

  B. accurate

  C. wonderful

  D. simplified

  答案:B

  解析:Faithful, 如实的,准确可靠的。

  Modern, 现代的,时髦的。Accurate, 精确的。Wonderful, 精彩的,奇妙的。Simplified,简化了的。所以B选项正确。

  7. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information. 【句子简化题】

  A. The Navajo used the symbolism and beauty of their works of art to improve their life in an often inhospitable environment.

  B. The ideas the Navajo hold about symbolism and beauty were influenced by their inhospitable climate, neighbors, and rulers.

  C. When they first arrived in the Southwest, the Navajo produced symbolic art forms that promoted harmony.

  D. In their works of art, the Navajo emphasized beauty and harmony that can be found even under the most inhospitable circumstances.

  答案:A

  解析:Highlighted部分意为,作为气候,邻居,和管理者都贫瘠荒凉的西南部的新来者,纳瓦霍人创造了这些艺术形式来影响他们周围的世界,而不仅仅是通过象征行为的叙述,而是通过艺术品自身的美以及和谐。其中the actions symbolized对应A选项中的symbolism,the beauty and harmony of the artworks themselves对应A选项中的beauty of their works of art. 所以A选项正确。

  8. According to paragraph 3, which of the following is often the subject of Navajo sand paintings?【事实信息题】

  A. The landscape of the Southwest

  B. Traditional Navajo practices

  C. Historical events that occurred in the Southwest

  D. The lives of heroes in traditional Navajo stories

  答案:D

  解析:根据原文“The paintings generally illustrate ideas and events from the life of a mythical hero, who, after being healed by the gods, gave gifts of songs and paintings.” 可看出,沙画中的主题是神话英雄的生活,其中the life of a mythical hero对应D选项中的The lives of heroes. 所以D选项正确。

  Paragraph 4

  The Navajo are also world-famous for the designs on their woven blankets. Navajo women own the family flocks, control the shearing of the sheep, the carding, the spinning, and dying of the thread, and the weaving of the fabrics. While the men who make faithful copies of sand paintings from the past represent the principle of stability in Navajo thought, women embody dynamism and create new designs for every weaving they make. Weaving is a paradigm of the creativity of a mythic ancestor named Spider Woman who wove the universe as a cosmic web that united earth and sky. It was she who,according to legend, taught Navajo women how to weave. As they prepare their materials and weave. Navajo women imitate the transformations that originally created the world. Working on their looms, Navajo weavers create images through which they experience harmony with nature. It is their means of creating beauty and thereby contributing to the beauty, harmony, and healing of the world. Thus, weaving is a way of seeing the world and being part of it.

  9. Paragraph 4 supports which of the following statements about Navajo weavers and weaving?【事实信息题】

  A. Navajo women oversee all aspects of wool production and weaving.

  B. The wool used for blankets comes from different sheep than does the wool used for other purposes.

  C. Navajo weavers have used some of the same designs for hundreds of years.

  D. Weaving is done primarily for use in rituals.

  答案:A

  解析:整个第四段都在介绍纳瓦霍人编织的历史和过程,所以A选项正确。B选项的“ comes from different sheep”没有提到。根据原文“ women embody dynamism and create new designs for every weaving they make.”可知C选择说有些设计已经被用了几百年并不正确。D选项在文章中也并未提及。

  10. The word “ancestor” in the passage is closest in meaning to 【词汇题】

  A. relative from an earlier generation

  B. person who established a particular tradition in a society

  C. hero from ancient times

  D. person who once made important contributions to a social group or culture

  答案:A

  解析:Ancestor, 祖先的意思。A选项的relative from an earlier generation, 意为更早一代的亲属,所以A选项正确。

  11. Why does the author discuss “a mythic ancestor”? 【修辞目的题】

  A. To show how Navajo ideas of weaving have changed over time

  B. To explain why the Navajo principle of stability is more clearly represented in their weavings than in their sand paintings

  C. To emphasize the role of naturally occurring weaving materials in the creative weavings of the Navajo

  D. To help explain the significance of weaving in Navajo culture

  答案:D

  解析:根据“ Navajo women imitate the transformations that originally created the world.”可看出,作者提及这个神秘的祖先Spider Woman是为了向我们介绍在纳瓦霍文化中,编织的重要性。所以D选项正确。

  12. According to paragraph 4, Navajo weavers imitate 【事实信息题】

  A. traditional weaving patterns

  B. patterns used in sand paintings

  C. the activities through which the world was created

  D. images from nature

  答案:C

  解析:根据原文“ Navajo women imitate the transformations that originally created the world.”可看出,C选项为同意转换,因此选项C正确。

  13. Look at the four squares [■]] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage. 【句子插入题】

  Since this purpose is limited to the context of the ritual, the paintings are destroyed when the ritual is completed.

  Where would the sentence best fit? Click on a square [■] to add the sentence to the passage.

  The Navajo, a Native American people living in the southwestern United States, live in small scattered settlements. In many respects, such as education, occupation, and leisure activities, their life is like that of other groups that contribute to the diverse social fabric of North American culture in the twenty-first century. At the same time, they have retained some traditional cultural practices that are associated with particular art forms. For example, the most important traditional Navajo rituals include the production of large floor paintings. These are actually made by pouring thin, finely controlled streams of colored sands or pulverized vegetable and mineral substances, pollen, and flowers in precise patterns on the ground. The largest of these paintings may be up to 5.5 meters in diameter and cover the entire floor of a room. Working from the inside of the design outward, the Navajo artist and his assistants will sift the black, white, bluish-gray, orange, and red materials through their fingers to create the finely detailed imagery. [■] The paintings and chants used in the ceremonies are directed by well-trained artists and singers who enlist the aid of spirits who are impersonated by masked performers. [■] The twenty-four known Navajo chants can be represented by up to 500 sand paintings. [■] These complex paintings serve as memory aids to guide the singers during the performance of the ritual songs, which can last up to nine days. [■]

  答案:D

  解析:这三句话都在讲paintings, 最后一句说这些复杂的画在表演中作为记忆辅助工具,而插入的句子的意思是“由于这个目的受仪式内容的限制,所以当仪式结束后就会被销毁”,所以句子应该插入在选项D的位置。

  14. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selected THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.【概要小结题】

  Drag your answer choices to the spaces where they belong. To remove an answer choice, click on it.

  To review the passage, click View Text.

  Navajo art is fundamentally connected to aspects of Navajo ritual and belief.

  Answer Choices

  A. Navajo sand paintings are an expression of the close relationship between nature and the spiritual world in Navajo culture

  B. Sand paintings, which help participants in rituals recall traditional chants, are part of ceremonies designed to restore beauty and harmony.

  C. Whereas Navajo sand paintings are associated with male deities. Navajo weaving involves representations of female figures such as Spider Woman.

  D. Individual Navajo sand paintings typically embody the principles of harmony and disorder.

  E. Sand paintings, which are created by Navajo men, are faithful re-creations of earlier works and as such represent the principle of stability.

  F. In Navajo culture, weaving is a female art and is associated with creativity and change.

  答案:B, E, F

  解析:

  根据原文 “The purpose and meaning of the sand paintings can be explained by examining one of the most basic ideals of Navajo society, embodied in their word hozho (beauty or harmony, goodness, and happiness).”,可知Navajo沙画想要传达给世界的并非是自然和Navajo文化的精神世界,所以A选项错误。

  根据原文“When the world, which was created in beauty, becomes ugly and disorderly, the Navajo gather to perform rituals with songs and make sand paintings to restore beauty and harmony to the world. ”,其中restore beauty and harmony to the world对应B选项中的restore beauty and harmony. 所以B选项正确。

  根据原文“The paintings generally illustrate ideas and events from the life of a mythical hero, who, after being healed by the gods”,可知沙画描绘的是神话英雄,而不是男性神明,所以C选项错误。并且C选项的内容太过细节,不属于主旨内容。

  根据原文“The purpose and meaning of the sand paintings can be explained by examining one of the most basic ideals of Navajo society, embodied in their word hozho (beauty or harmony, goodness, and happiness).”,选项D说体现的原则是和谐和混乱,因此选项D错误。

  根据原文“While the men who make faithful copies of sand paintings from the past represent the principle of stability in Navajo thought”,所以E选项正确。

  根据原文“ women embody dynamism and create new designs for every weaving they make”,所以F选项正确。

  以上的内容就是托福tpo41阅读题目文本及答案解析【Navajo Art】,希望可以给同学们提供更多资料参考。


展开显示全文