Lecture 3(Art History)
1. What does the professor mainly discuss?
a. The process art historians use to determine who created Renaissance artworks
b. Whether collaborative artworks are superior to those produced individually
c. The way that art was created during the Renaissance
d. The development of artistic individuality during the Renaissance
解析：(从第11秒开始，原文重现：But this task becomes particularly difficult when we're dealing with works produced in Italy during the Renaissance, the 16th, 17th centuries.)
2. According to the professor, what factors may have led to a Renaissance artist's decision to hire assistants?
Click on 2 answers.
a. The number of commissions an artist accepted
b. The scale of the project to be completed
c. The amount of money to be paid for the project
d. The amount of advice needed from other artists
解析：(从第1分29秒开始，原文重现：You see, to deal with a wide variety of commissions they received, orders basically, for specific types of art, specific projects, to handle these, master artists often employed assistants as apprentices. And this was especially so if they worked on a large scale, huge paintings or sculptures, or if they were much in demand, like Raphael, for instance.)
3. Why does the professor mention someone who painted animals in Raphael’s workshop?
a. As an example of how artists learned by painting real-life models
b. As an example of paintings that were copied from sculptures
c. As an example of how assistants specialized in different types of painting
d. As an example of how an assistant introduced an artistic innovation
解析：(从第2分12秒开始，原文重现：And they might also specialize. For example, in Raphael's workshop, which might be called Raphael incorporated, one of the assistants specialized in animals. He actually painted a good number of the animals in Raphael's art.)
4. According to the professor, how is a building project like a ballet?
a. Strong leadership is necessary to coordinate the work.
b. Everyone needs to be aware of what the others are doing.
c. Everyone needs to be doing the same thing at the same time.
d. The result depends on the level of skill of each person involved.
解析：(从第3分09秒开始，原文重现：Think of it, like, um, a ballet, you know. All the dancers work together. There's a division of labor. People have different roles. And in order for the thing to come together, everyone needs to be aware of what others are doing and coordinate their work and have good timing.)
5. Why does the professor mention that in architecture, instructions were usually given orally?
Click on 2 answers.
a. To emphasize that architectural designs were constantly changing
b. To demonstrate the extent of the collaboration between master architects and their assistants
c. To explain why there is little documentation for many projects
d. To stress the difficulty in determining any given artisan’s contributions to a project
解析：(从第3分48秒开始，原文重现：Instructions were given orally, not in writing. So we don't have those documents to tell us what exactly the master architect's plans were. The only time we have written records is when the architect wasn't actually there. Perhaps the architect was away on business and had to write out instructions and send them to the shop.)
6. What does the professor imply about the process of producing architecture collaboratively?
a. It was a result of patrons’ believing in an architect's individual genius.
b. It resulted in extra expense for the patrons.
c. It was simpler than producing sculpture collaboratively.
d. It often resulted in less innovation than the architect intended.
破题关键词汇：imply, producing architecture collaboratively
解析：(从第4分15秒开始，原文重现：I mean, since the hired artisans had been trained by other artisans, they tended to be trained to use traditional styles and techniques. So if you're a master architect, uh, you've developed your own style. Say you're calling for certain detail in the building you're designing, right? And say this detail is different, purposely different, from the established tradition, the established style.
Well, most likely when the hired artisans would execute the design, rather than follow the intended design, they would stick with the more traditional style that they were familiar with. Workers would have to be supervised very closely to prevent this from happening. Otherwise, as it often happened, there goes the designer's style and creativity.)