Narrator: Listen to a conversation between a student and a business professor.
Tom: Thanks for seeing me, Professor Jackson.
Professor Jackson: Sure, Tom. What can I do for you?
Tom: I’m gonna do my term project on service design, oh, what you see as a customer—the physical layout of the building, the parking lot. And I thought I’d focus on various kinds of eateries—restaurants, coffee shops, cafeterias, so I’d also analyze where you order your food, where you eat, and so on.
Professor: Wait, I thought you were going to come up with a hypothetical business plan for an amusement park. Isn’t that what you emailed me last week?
Professor: I could’ve sworn. Oh, I’m thinking of a Tom from another class. Tom Benson. Sorry, sorry.
Tom: No problem. I did email you my idea, too, though.
Professor: Oh, that’s right. I remember now. Restaurants, yeah.
Tom: So, here’s my question. I read something about service standard that kind of confused me. What’s the difference between service design and service standard?
Professor: Service standard refers to what a company employees are ideally supposed to do in order for everything to operate smoothly. The protocol is to be followed.
Tom: Oh, okay.
Professor: So, backing up. Service design is um, think of the cafeteria here on campus. There are several food counters, right? All with big clear signs to help you find what you’re looking for. Soups, salads, desserts. So you know exactly where to go to get what you need. And when you’re finished picking up your food, where do you go?
Tom: To the cash registers.
Professor: And where are they?
Tom: Um. Right before you get to the seating area.
Professor: Exactly. A place you would logically move to next.
Tom: You know, not every place is like that. This past weekend was my friend’s birthday and I went to a bakery in town to pick up a cake for her party. And the layout of the place was weird. People were all in each other’s way, standing in the wrong lines to pay to place orders. Oh, and another thing. I heard this bakery makes a really good apple pie. So I wanted to buy a slice of it, too.
Tom: There was a little label that said apple pie where it’s supposed to be. But there wasn’t any left.
Professor: And that’s what’s called a service gap. Maybe there wasn’t enough training for the employees or maybe they just ran out of pie that day. But something’s wrong with the process and the service standard wasn’t being met.
Tom: Okay, I think I get it. Anyway, since part of the requirements for the term project is to visit an actual place of business, do you think I could use our cafeteria? They seem to have a lot of the things I’m looking for.
Professor: Well, campus businesses like the cafeteria or bookstore don’t quite follow the kinds of service models we’re studying in class. You should go to some other local establishments I’d say.
Tom: I see.
Professor: But just call the manager ahead of time so they aren’t surprised.
Narrator: Listen to part of a lecture in an art history class.
Professor: Last class, I passed out your assignment for your first paper. And today, I want to spend some time going over it. Um…Most people never take any art history until they get to college so many of you have probably never written an art history paper before. I gave you a list of appropriate works of art for you to write about. So your next step in this process needs to be to go look at the work you’ve selected as your topic and bring a pencil and a notepad with you. Because I don’t mean you should just drop by at the museum and glance at it so you can say you’ve seen it in real life. You need to go and sit in front of the work and really look at it, carefully, slowly and keep careful notes about what you see. You’ll need them for the kind of art history paper you’re going to be writing. It’s what we call a formal analysis.
A formal analysis of a work of art, any kind of art, is based on its formal qualities, which means qualities related to the form. Things like color, texture, line, shapes, proportion, and composition. Probably the closest thing to a formal analysis you might have written is for an English class. If you’ve, say written an analysis of a poem, you’ve used the same skills. You’ve given an analysis of the poem by describing and analyzing its form and meter. A formal analysis paper in art history is very similar. Now, before you begin writing your formal analysis, you’ll want to start with a summary of the overall appearance of the work, a brief description of what you see. Are the figures people? What are they doing? Or is it a landscape or an abstract representation of something? Tell what the subject is and what aspects are emphasized in the painting. This will give your reader an overview of what the work looks like before you analyze it.
The next part of your paper, the actual formal analysis, will be the longest and most important section of your paper where you describe and analyze individual design elements. For this portion of the paper, you’re going to rely on the notes you took at the museum because you should be able to describe in detail the design elements the artist uses and how they’re used. For example, does the artist use harsh lines or soft lines? Are the colors bright or muted? Focus on the design elements that you feel are most strongly represented in that particular work of art. And if you don’t know where to begin, take note of where your eye goes first. Then describe things in the order in which your eye moves around the work. This will help you understand how one part relates to another, the interaction between the different parts of the work, okay? This kind of analysis should occur throughout the main portion of the paper.
In the last section of your paper, and this goes beyond formal analysis, you comment on the significance of what you’ve seen. What details of the work convey meaning? Some significant details will not be apparent to you right away. But if you look long enough you realize how important they are for your interpretation of the work.
Many years ago, I was writing a formal analysis of a painting of a little boy. In the painting, a little boy was standing in his nursery and he was holding a toy bird in his hand and there were more toys around him in the background of the painting. Because of the bird he was holding, I assumed at first that the painting was about the innocence of children. But as I looked at the painting longer, I realized that the boy’s eyes looked sad even though there was no discernible expression on his face. And then it dawned on me that even though he was surrounded by toys, he was all alone in his nursery. The boy’s eyes were a significant detail on the painting that I didn’t notice at first.