One of the most important changes in Greece during the period from 800 B.C. to 500 B.C. was the rise of the polis, or city-state, and each polis developed a system of government that was appropriate to its circumstances. The problems that were faced and solved in Athens were the sharing of political power between the established aristocracy and the emerging other classes, and the adjustment of aristocratic ways of life to the ways of life of the new polis. It was the harmonious blending of all of these elements that was to produce the classical culture of Athens.
Entering the polis age, Athens had the traditional institutions of other Greek protodemocratic states: an assembly of adult males, an aristocratic council, and annually elected officials. Within this traditional framework the Athenians, between 600 B.C. and 450 B. C., evolved what Greeks regarded as a fully fledged democratic constitution, though the right to vote was given to fewer groups of people than is seen in modem times.
The first steps toward change were taken by Solon in 594 B. C.，when he broke the aristocracy's stranglehold on elected offices by establishing wealth rather than birth as the basis of office holding, abolishing the economic obligations of ordinary Athenians to the aristocracy, and allowing the assembly (of which all citizens were equal members) to overrule the decisions of local courts in certain cases. The strength of the Athenian aristocracy was further weakened during the rest of the century by the rise of a type of government known as a tyranny, which is a form of interim rule by a popular strongman (not rule by a ruthless dictator as the modern use of the term suggests to us). The Peisistratids, as the succession of tyrants were called (after the founder of the dynasty, Peisistratos), strengthened Athenian central administration at the expense of the aristocracy by appointing judges throughout the region, producing Athens’ first national coinage, and adding and embellishing festivals that tended to focus attention on Athens rather than on local villages of the surrounding region. By the end of the century, the time was ripe for more change: the tyrants were driven out, and in 508 B C a new reformer, Cleisthenes, gave final form to the developments reducing aristocratic control already under way.
Cleisthenes' principal contribution to the creation of democracy at Athens was to complete the long process of weakening family and clan structures, especially among the aristocrats, and to set in their place locality-based corporations called demes, which became the point of entry for all civic and most religious life in Athens. Out of the demes were created 10 artificial tribes of roughly equal population. From the demes, by either election or selection, came 500 members of a new council, 6,000 jurors for the courts, 10 generals, and hundreds of commissioners. The assembly was sovereign in all matters but in practice delegated its power to subordinate bodies such as the council, which prepared the agenda for the meetings of the assembly, and me courts, which took care of most judicial matters. Various committees acted as an executive branch, implementing policies of the assembly and supervising, for instance, the food and water supplies and public buildings. This wide-scale participation by the citizenry in the government distinguished the democratic form of the Athenian polis from other, less liberal forms.
The effect of Cleisthenes’ reforms was to establish the superiority of the Athenian community as a whole over local institutions without destroying them. National politics rather than local or deme politics became the focal point. At the same time, entry into national politics began at the deme level and gave local loyalty a new focus: Athens itself. Over the next two centuries the implications of Cleisthenes’ reforms were fully exploited.
During the fifth century B. C. the council of 500 was extremely influential in shaping policy. In the next century, however, it was the mature assembly that took on decision-making responsibility. By any measure other than that of the aristocrats, who had been upstaged by the supposedly inferior "people," the Athenian democracy was a stunning success. Never before, or since, have so many people been involved in the serious business of self-governance. It was precisely this opportunity to participate in public life that provided a stimulus for the brilliant unfolding of classical Greek culture.
1.Why does the student go to see the professor?
a.To find out all the requirements for a project
b.To discuss a service gap at a restaurant
c.To get help understanding concepts relevant to his project
d.To get help with designing a business plan
2.Why does the professor mention a student in another class?
a.To describe an interesting topic for a project
b.To explain the cause of her initial confusion
c.To point out that she has not received e-mails from all her students yet
d.To indicate that she has several students doing projects about restaurants
3.Why does the professor talk about the cafeteria on campus?
a.To give an example of an effective service design
b.To illustrate how service standards can inform service design
c.To help the man understand a service problem
d.To illustrate the concept of a service gap
4.What do the speakers imply about the bakery the student went to recently? Click on 2 answers.
a.The apple pie he bought there was not as good as it usually is.
b.The bakery's service design was inefficient.
c.The bakery needs additional employees to fix a service gap.
d.The bakery did not meet a service standard.
5.What does the professor say the student should do for his project?
a.Compare an on-campus service model with an off-campus one
b.Interview the service manager and employees at the cafeteria
c.Recommend service improvements at the cafeteria and the bookstore
d.Analyze the service design of a nearby restaurant
TASK 1 Independent Speaking, Personal Preference
Talk about a country or culture that you would like to learn more about. What is the country or culture and why would you like to learn more about it.
TASK 2 Independent Speaking, Paired Choice
Some people think that materials printed on paper, such as books and newspapers, will one day be replaced by electronic versions of those materials. Others believe that printed materials will always be popular. Which point of view do you agree with? Explain why.
TASK 3 Integrated Reading/Listening/Speaking
University to Create a Lounge for Commuter Students
Many students at our university do not live in dormitories These students live in town or in the suburbs and travel to campus every day The university has decided to provide these commuter students with a special lounge in the student center—with couches, chairs, and a television. University officials hope that this lounge—a place to socialize and relax—will give commuter students some of the same advantages that dormitory residents now have. An important additional feature of the lounge will be a bulletin board on the wall for posting and sharing information that may be especially useful to commuter students and their particular needs.
The woman expresses her opinion about the university’s plan. Briefly summarize the plan. Then state her opinion about the plan and explain the reasons she gives for holding that opinion.
TASK 4 Integrated Reading/Listening/Speaking
Within certain animal species, conflicts sometimes arise over resources such as territory or food To resolve these conflicts, two animals of the same species may engage in agonistic behavior With this type of aggressive behavior, the animals participate in a physical competition that demonstrates which animal is more powerful While each animal attempts to prove its strength in the competition, it typically does so without harming the other animal Once the winner is established, that animal gains access to the desired resources, while the weaker animal surrenders and leaves the area.
Explain how the example in the lecture illustrates agonistic behavior .
TASK 5 Integrated Listening/Speaking
Briefly summarize the problem the speakers are discussing. Then state which solution you would recommend. Explain the reasons for your recommendation.
TASK 6 Integrated Listening/Speaking
Using the examples from the lecture, explain two strategies salespeople use to address customer concerns.
TASK 1 Integrated Writing
Many scientists believe it would be possible to maintain a permanent human presence on Mars or the Moon. On the other hand, conditions on Venus are so extreme and inhospitable that maintaining a human presence there would be impossible
First, atmospheric pressure at Venus’ surface is at least 90 times greater than the pressure at Earth’s surface This means that a force of 100 kilograms is pressing down on every square centimeter of surface All spacecraft that have landed on Venus have been crushed by this extreme pressure within an hour of landing. Almost anything humans might land on Venus would be crushed as well.
Second, as far as we know, there are no reservoirs of water on Venus' surface, and the planet s atmosphere, made up mostly of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and sulfuric acid, contains hardly any oxygen or water vapor Water and oxygen would therefore probably have to be supplied to Venus from Earth. The idea of ensuring a regular supply of water and oxygen from Earth is impractical in the extreme and would probably defeat the purpose of establishing a permanent station on Venus.
Third, very little sunlight reaches the planet s surface. About 60 percent of the sunlight that hits Venus is reflected back into space by the thick clouds that fill the atmosphere, which means that only 40 percent of the sunlight can get through the clouds Below these clouds is a dense layer of carbon dioxide, which blocks even more light, so very little light reaches the surface. The lack of light would prevent the use of solar power cells, so humans could not get electricity to power their machines and equipment.
You have 20 minutes to plan and write your response. Your response will be judged on the basis of the quality of your writing and on how well your response presents the points in the lecture and their relationship to the reading passage. Typically, an effective response will be 150 to 225 words.
Summarize the points made in the lecture, being sure to explain how the proposal discussed in the lecture would solve the specific challenges described in the reading passage.