托福阅读TPO47Part1阅读【原文+题目+答案解析】!托福阅读备考期间大家可以结合TPO练习,在掌握不同题型解题技巧的同时,还可以对自己的学习情况进行检测。下面智课网为大家整理了托福阅读TPO47Part1阅读内容,希望对大家备考有帮助。

  托福阅读TPO47Part1阅读原文

  Roman Cultural Influence on Britain

  After the Roman Empire’s conquest of Britain in the first century A.D., the presence of administrators, merchants, and troops on British soil, along with the natural flow of ideas and goods from the rest of the empire, had an enormous influence on life in the British Isles. Cultural influences were of three types: the bringing of objects, the transfer of craft workers, and the introduction of massive civil architecture. Many objects were not art in even the broadest sense and comprised utilitarian items of clothing, utensils, and equipment. We should not underestimate the social status associated with such mundane possessions which had not previously been available. The flooding of Britain with red-gloss pottery form Gaul (modern-day France), decorated with scenes from Classical mythology, probably brought many into contact with the styles and artistic concepts of the Greco-Roman world for the first time, whether or not the symbolism was understood. Mass-produced goods were accompanied by fewer more aesthetically impressive objects such as statuettes. Such pieces perhaps first came with officials for their own religious worship; others were then acquired by native leaders as diplomatic gifts or by purchase. Once seen by the natives, such objects created a fashion which rapidly spread through the province.

  In the most extreme instances, natives literally bought the whole package of Roman culture. The Fishbourne villa, built in the third quarter of the first century A.D., probably for the native client king Cogidubnus, amply illustrates his Roman pretensions. It was constructed in the latest Italian style with imported marbles and stylish mosaics. It was lavishly furnished with imported sculptures and other Classical objects. A visitor from Rome would have recognized its owner as a participant in the contemporary culture of the empire, not at all provincial in taste. Even if those from the traditional families looked down on him, they would have been unable to dismiss him as uncultured. Although exceptional, this demonstrates how new cultural symbols bound provincials to the identify of the Roman world.

  Such examples established a standard to be copied. One result was an influx of craft worker, particularly those skilled in artistic media like stone-carving which had not existed before the conquest. Civilian workers came mostly from Gaul and Germany. The magnificent temple built beside the sacred spring at Bath was constructed only about twenty years after the conquest. Its detail shows that it was carved by artists from northeast Gaul. In the absence of a tradition of Classical stone-carving and building, the desire to develop Roman amenities would have been difficult to fulfill. Administrators thus used their personal contacts to put the Britons in touch with architects and masons. As many of the officials in Britain had strong links with Gaul, it is not surprising that early Roman Britain owes much to craft workers from that area. Local workshops did develop and stylistically similar groups of sculpture show how skills in this new medium became widerspread. Likewise skills in the use of mosaic, wall painting, ceramic decoration, and metal-working developed throughout the province with the eventual emergence of characteristically Romano-British styles.

  This art had a major impact on the native peoples, and one of the most importance factors was a change in the scale of buildings. Pre-Roman Britain was highly localized, with people rarely traveling beyond their own region. On occasion large groups amassed for war or religious festivals, but society remained centered on small communities. Architecture of this era reflected this with even the largest of the fortified towns and hill forts containing no more than clusters of medium-sized structures. The spaces inside even the largest roundhouses were modest, and the use of rounded shapes and organic building materials gave buildings a human scale. But the effect of Roman civil architecture was significant. The sheer size of space enclosed within buildings like the basilica of London must have been astonishing. This was an architecture of dominance in which subject peoples were literally made to feel small by buildings that epitomized imperial power. Supremacy was accentuated by the unyielding straight lines of both individual buildings and planned settlements since these too provided a marked contrast with the natural curvilinear shapes dominant in the native realm.

  托福阅读TPO47Part1阅读题目:

  Passage1

  After the Roman Empire’s conquest of Britain in the first century A.D., the presence of administrators, merchants, and troops on British soil, along with the natural flow of ideas and goods from the rest of the empire, had an enormous influence on life in the British Isles. Cultural influences were of three types: the bringing of objects, the transfer of craft workers, and the introduction of massive civil architecture. Many objects were not art in even the broadest sense and comprised utilitarian items of clothing, utensils, and equipment. We should not underestimate the social status associated with such mundane possessions which had not previously been available. The flooding of Britain with red-gloss pottery form Gaul (modern-day France), decorated with scenes from Classical mythology, probably brought many into contact with the styles and artistic concepts of the Greco-Roman world for the first time, whether or not the symbolism was understood. Mass-produced goods were accompanied by fewer more aesthetically impressive objects such as statuettes. Such pieces perhaps first came with officials for their own religious worship; others were then acquired by native leaders as diplomatic gifts or by purchase. Once seen by the natives, such objects created a fashion which rapidly spread through the province.

  1. The word “mundane” in the passage is closest in meaning to

  A. material

  B. ordinary

  C. valued

  D. useful

  2.Paragraph 1 suggests that one benefit for British natives in buying such items as red-gloss pottery made in Gaul was

  A. improved quality of utilitarian items

  B. Understanding the symbolism of Classical mythology

  C. higher social standing

  D. Learning to mass-produce pottery for a profit

  3.Paragraph 1 supports which of the following ideas about contacts that existed between Britain and the Roman Empire before the Roman conquest of Britain?

  A. They were sufficient for native Britons to become familiar with everyday Roman objects.

  B. They were not sufficient for even very basic aspects of the culture of the Roman Empire to find their way into British life.

  C. They were not sufficient for British to have heard of the power of the Roman Empire.

  D. They were sufficient for individual Britons to become very interested in trying to participate in the culture of the Roman Empire.

  Passage 2

  In the most extreme instances, natives literally bought the whole package of Roman culture. The Fishbourne villa, built in the third quarter of the first century A.D., probably for the native client king Cogidubnus, amply illustrates his Roman pretensions. It was constructed in the latest Italian style with imported marbles and stylish mosaics. It was lavishly furnished with imported sculptures and other Classical objects. A visitor from Rome would have recognized its owner as a participant in the contemporary culture of the empire, not at all provincial in taste. Even if those from the traditional families looked down on him, they would have been unable to dismiss him as uncultured. Although exceptional, this demonstrates how new cultural symbols bound provincials to the identify of the Roman world.

  4. The word “lavishly” in the passage is closest in meaning to

  A. exclusively

  B. additionally

  C. appropriately

  D. richly

  5.According to paragraph 2, the style and furnishings of the Fishbourne villa suggest that the person for whom it was built was

  A. cultured according to the contemporary standards of the empire

  B. caught between native and Roman traditions

  C. originally a visitor from Rome

  D. a member of a socially inferior family

  Passage 3

  Such examples established a standard to be copied. One result was an influx of craft worker, particularly those skilled in artistic media like stone-carving which had not existed before the conquest. Civilian workers came mostly from Gaul and Germany. The magnificent temple built beside the sacred spring at Bath was constructed only about twenty years after the conquest. Its detail shows that it was carved by artists from northeast Gaul. In the absence of a tradition of Classical stone-carving and building, the desire to develop Roman amenities would have been difficult to fulfill. Administrators thus used their personal contacts to put the Britons in touch with architects and masons. As many of the officials in Britain had strong links with Gaul, it is not surprising that early Roman Britain owes much to craft workers from that area. Local workshops did develop and stylistically similar groups of sculpture show how skills in this new medium became widerspread. Likewise skills in the use of mosaic, wall painting, ceramic decoration, and metal-working developed throughout the province with the eventual emergence of characteristically Romano-British styles.

  6.The word “sacred” in the passage is closet in meaning to

  A. holy

  B. ancient

  C. natural

  D. Secret

  7.According to paragraph 3, one factor contributing to success of the earliest Roman-style construction projects in Britain was

  A. the fact that long before the conquest many civilian workers from Gaul and Germany had settled in Britain

  B. the rapid development of characteristically Romano-British styles

  C. the availability, in northeast Gaul, of structures that could serve as standards to be copied

  D. the use, by administrators, of personal connections to bring craft workers form Gaul into contact with Britons

  Passage 4

  This art had a major impact on the native peoples, and one of the most importance factors was a change in the scale of buildings. Pre-Roman Britain was highly localized, with people rarely traveling beyond their own region. On occasion large groups amassed for war or religious festivals, but society remained centered on small communities. Architecture of this era reflected this with even the largest of the fortified towns and hill forts containing no more than clusters of medium-sized structures. The spaces inside even the largest roundhouses were modest, and the use of rounded shapes and organic building materials gave buildings a human scale. But the effect of Roman civil architecture was significant. The sheer size of space enclosed within buildings like the basilica of London must have been astonishing. This was an architecture of dominance in which subject peoples were literally made to feel small by buildings that epitomized imperial power. Supremacy was accentuated by the unyielding straight lines of both individual buildings and planned settlements since these too provided a marked contrast with the natural curvilinear shapes dominant in the native realm.

  8. In paragraph 4, why does the author mention that “Pre-Roman Britain was highly localized, with people rarely traveling beyond their own region”?

  A. To suggest that the Roman conquest of Britain increased the standard of living for natives

  B. To indicate that pre-Roman Britain was more interested in festivals and community life than conquering other regions

  C. To explain why architecture during this period was not built to be particularly large

  D. To illustrate how the traditional roundhouse evolved under the influence of Roman civil architecture

  9.The word “modest” in the passage in closet in meaning to

  A. comfortable

  B. limited in number

  C. poorly lit

  D. not large

  10.According to paragraph 4, people in pre-Roman Britain lived, for the most part, in

  A. architecture that seemed imperial in size

  B. small communities

  C. large roundhouses

  D. fortified towns

  11.According to paragraph 4, why did straight lines in buildings and settlements emphasize the dominance of those who introduced them ?

  A. Because straight lines were in contrast to the shapes found in pre-Roman architecture

  B. Because unlike curved lines, which are shaped in all sorts of different ways, straight lines do no differ

  C. Because the dominant lines in entire settlements were the same as those in individual buildings

  D. Because building and settlements were easier to construct when the dominant lines were straight lines

  12.According to paragraph 4, buildings from the pre-Roman period differed sharply from buildings reflection Roman civil architecture in each of the following respects EXCEPT

  A. their outside and inside dimensions

  B. the impact they had on people

  C. the geometric shapes in which they were built

  D. the positioning of buildings in clusters

  13. Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

  Practical and unimpressive, most were barely taller than the average adult.

  Where would the sentence best fit? Click on a square [■] to add the sentence to the passage.

  This art had a major impact on the native peoples, and one of the most importance factors was a change in the scale of buildings. Pre-Roman Britain was highly localized, with people rarely traveling beyond their own region. On occasion large groups amassed for war or religious festivals, but society remained centered on small communities. Architecture of this era reflected this with even the largest of the fortified towns and hill forts containing no more than clusters of medium-sized structures. The spaces inside even the largest roundhouses were modest, and the use of rounded shapes and organic building materials gave buildings a human scale. [■] But the effect of Roman civil architecture was significant. The sheer size of space enclosed within buildings like the basilica of London must have been astonishing. [■] This was an architecture of dominance in which subject peoples were literally made to feel small by buildings that epitomized imperial power. [■] Supremacy was accentuated by the unyielding straight lines of both individual buildings and planned settlements since these too provided a marked contrast with the natural curvilinear shapes dominant in the native realm.[■]

  14. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below.Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 3 points.

  Drag your answer choices to the spaces where they belong. To remove an answer choice, click on it.

  To review the passage, click VIEW TEXT.

  The conquest of Britain by the Roman Empire resulted in significant cultural change.

  Answer Choices

  A. New objects entering Britain ranged from mass-produced articles for everyday use to works of art, and they were widely-and enthusiastically-accepted by native Britons.

  B. Constructing and furnishing buildings in the Roman style required skills that native workers did not at first have, so workers were brought in from other parts of the empire.

  C. Native Britons traveled to Gaul to learn Classical stone-carving and building techniques.

  D. The conquest was followed by a building boom, and enough villas and temples in the Italian style were built that a visitor from Rome would have felt quite at home in post-conquest Britain.

  E. An important symbol of Roman supremacy was Roman architecture, whose enormous size, emphasized by the use of straight lines, made the natives feel insignificant.

  F. Characteristically Romano-British concepts took hold in architecture; roundhouses were built much larger than before, and straight lines began to be used in interior spaces.

  托福阅读TPO47Part1阅读答案解析:

  Passage 1

  Q 1

  正确答案:B

  解析:原句意为,我们不应轻视这些以前在英国曾没有的普通物品的社会地位。其中的mundane意为“普通的,平凡的”,四个选项中,A意为“物质上的”,B意为“普通的”,C意为“有价值的”,D意为“有用的”,只有B符合条件。

  Q 2

  正确答案:C

  解析:第1段中提到,We should not underestimate the social status associated with such mundane possessions which had not previously been available.可见,这些从罗马引入的物品被赋予了一定的社会意义,拥有它们是人们社会身份地位的象征。C符合原文。

  Q 3

  正确答案:B

  解析:第1段中提到,在罗马入侵后,罗马的物品以及思想等对英国产生了巨大的影响,而在此之前,它们之间的交流并不多,从该段的字里行间不难看出这一点:一些类似于clothing, utensils and equipment这样的mundane possessions之前从未在英国出现过,而且当它们出现后,成了社会身份地位的象征。后面的…for the first time, whether or not the symbolism was understood进一步提示,在罗马入侵英国前,它们之间的交流极其有限。

  Q 4

  正确答案:D

  解析:原句意为,它被大量装饰了进口的雕刻和其他一些经典的物品。其中的lavishly意为“大量地,丰富地”,四个选项中,A意为“唯一地;专门地”,B意为“额外地”,C意为“恰当地”,D意为“丰富地”,只有D符合条件。

  Q 5

  正确答案:A

  解析:第2段提到,… a participant in the contemporary culture of the empire, not at all provincial in taste. Even if those from the traditional families looked down on him, they would have been unable to dismiss him as uncultured.这里使用了双重否定,也就是说,the Fishbourne villa的主人的品味并不老土(provincial),应该是受过教育的,A符合原文。

  Q 6

  正确答案:A

  解析:原句意为,这座位于Bath圣泉旁边的金碧辉煌的寺庙是在罗马征服大约20年后修建的。其中的sacred意为“上帝的;神圣的”,四个选项中,A意为“神圣的,圣洁的”,B意为“古代的”,C意为“自然的”,D意为“秘密的”,只有A符合条件,故为答案。

  Q 7

  正确答案:D

  解析:第3段提到,在缺少能工巧匠的情况下,要建造Roman amenities并非易事,而这时候,Administrators thus used their personal contacts to put the Britons in touch with architects and masons. 可见,正是统治者们利用私人关系使英国人与Gual的工匠接触才使得英国早期的罗马风格的建筑成为可能。

  Q 8

  正确答案:C

  解析:第4段提到了罗马建筑艺术对英国本土建筑风格的影响。在罗马入侵之前,英国人很少会在自己生活圈以外的区域活动,这一点在当时的建筑中有所体现:even the largest of the fortified towns and hill forts containing no more than clusters of medium-sized structures. 因此,作者这样说的目的是为了给后来说明在罗马入侵前,英国本土建筑的规模并不庞大打下铺垫,故C为正确答案。

  Q 9

  正确答案:D

  解析:原文中提到,罗马入侵前,英国建筑的规模不大。单词所在句是对其前一句内容的进一步补充说明,可见这里的modest应表示“不太大的”意思,与上一句中的medium-sized相呼应。四个选项中,A表示“舒适的”,B意为“数量有限的”,C意为“照明差的”,D意为“不大的”,只有D符合要求,故为答案。

  Q 10

  正确答案:B

  解析:第4段提到,On occasion large groups amassed for war or religious festivals, but society remained centered on small communities. 也就是说,除非是为了战争或者宗教目的,罗马入侵前的英国人大多都是以small communities的方式生活的,故B为答案。

  Q 11

  正确答案:A

  解析:第4段最后一句指出,Supremacy was accentuated by the unyielding straight lines of both individual buildings and planned settlements since these too provided a marked contrast with the natural curvilinear shapes dominant in the native realm.可见,罗马建筑的直线风格与英国本土建筑之前的自然曲线风格形成了对比,而这种建筑风格上的变化也彰显了权力,A符合原文。

  Q 12

  正确答案:D

  解析:本题主要考查英国本土建筑与罗马建筑的区别。A对应原文中的The spaces inside even the largest roundhouses were modest和The sheer size of space enclosed within buildings like the basilica of London must have been astonishing。B对应原文中的This was an architecture of dominance in which subject peoples were literally made to feel small by buildings that epitomized imperial power。C对应原文中的and the use of rounded shapes,unyielding straight lines和the natural curvilinear shapes。只有D的内容在原文中未提及。

  Q 13

  正确答案:填入第一个方框处

  解析:待插入句的内容描述了形状大小,说明某物的高度约有一个人的高度,句中的most应在前一句中有具体的指代。分析四个方框所在处的句子,第一个方框前的句子描述了英国本土建筑的内部尺寸不大,句末的human scale与待插入句中的barely taller than the average adult相对应,都在说明英国本土建筑的形状高度的内容。

  Q 14

  正确答案:ABE

  解析:A对应第1段的内容。B对应第3段的内容。E对应第4段的内容。C与第3段的内容不符,原文只说了当时的统治者通过私人关系使得英国人与Gaul工匠建立联系。D是对第2段细节信息的胡乱嫁接,与原文内容明显不符。F是对最后一段的错误理解。

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