Lecture 4 (United States Government)
1. What issue does the professor mainly discuss?
a. Government purchases of private property to expand transportation routes
b. The rising cost of public transportation in the United States
c. The transfer of certain public assets to for-profit companies
d. Whether voters can be persuaded to approve toll increases
(从第19秒开始，原文重现：Now, traditionally, much of the society’s infrastructure particularly the transportation infrastructure has been owned in operated by states, by governments. But lately, local and state governments have started to consider and sometimes actually enter into various deals to privatize parts of their infrastructure. Particularly in the transportation sector. )
2. Why does the professor mention highway construction that took place during the 1950s and 1960s?
a. To point out changes in voter attitudes toward toll and tax increases
b. To suggest that mistakes were made when the highway system was built
c. To explain why traffic congestion is not as bad as it used to be
d. To make a point about the current need for infrastructure repairs
破题关键词汇： highway construction, during the 1950s and 1960s
(从第1分钟开始，原文重现：But these facilities are getting old now and they’re becoming more and more expensive to maintain, very expensive actually. Tolls and tax revenues don’t often cover all the needed repairs. )
3. According to the professor, why do governments consider selling or leasing pieces of infrastructure?
Click on 2 answers.
a. Governments often have difficulty balancing their general budgets.
b. The money that governments receive from user fees has gone down in recent years
c. Political considerations limit governments’ ability to raise money for maintenance.
d. Private companies are better able to estimate the cost of infrastructure repairs.
破题关键词汇：selling or leasing
(从第2分08秒开始，原文重现：Since they’re not government entities, private companies face less political resistance, say to raising tolls in order to provide that better service. But besides that, there’s another reason governments like these deals. States often have troubles paying their bills, and they can use money they get from selling or leasing a piece of infrastructure to balance their budget.)
4. What does the professor imply about some people s concerns over privatizing parts of an infrastructure?
a. Their concerns are likely to diminish in the future.
b. Their concerns are completely justified.
c. Their concerns suggest that voters need better information.
d. Their concerns have mostly been disregarded by governments.
破题关键词汇：imply, privatizing parts
(从第2分41秒开始，原文重现：For instance, in almost every case this far, the first thing private company’s do, is drastically raise user fees because they say, oh we must do critical maintenance that’s gone undone for years and years, and because we are private company, we can’t use tax money to do it, our only option is raising tolls.)
5. What does the professor imply about secondary roads?
a. Their availability tends to limit toll increases on major highways.
b. They can be more expensive to repair than major highways are.
c. Increasing numbers of them are becoming toll roads.
d. Commuters are attracted to them for their scenic qualities.
破题关键词汇：imply, secondary roads
(从第3分42秒开始，原文重现：So market forces do play a role in keeping private companies from raising their tolls too much.)
6. According to the professor, what is likely to happen when a bridge provides steady revenue for a private company?
a. The bridge will be well maintained in the long term.
b. The company will not raise tolls.
c. Other companies will be interested in buying the bridge.
d. Voters will pressure the government to buy back the bridge.
破题关键词汇：provides steady revenue, a private company
(从第4分05秒开始，原文重现：If a company buys a or gets a long term lease on a toll bridge from the government, it’s got an almost guaranteed steady source of revenue for years and years, which means that if a company decides that it wants to sell the bridge to another company, say ten years from now, it’ll have no problem finding a buyer.)