阅读:New Guinean Flatworms这种虫子在欧洲不断扩散。需要寻找方法控制它蔓延的趋势。提到如下三种方式:

  1. Biological control:引入predator,或者依赖当地的鸟类

  2. Chemical control:使用pesticide。

  3. Soil fertilization:翻耕土壤,提升肥力,使用肥料,提升土壤温度,杀死虫卵。


  1. 引入predator会导致被引入的种群无法控制。当地鸟类都不吃这种虫子,味道酸难吃。

  2. 使用pesticide杀死该虫子,目前没有十分有效的针对该虫子的杀虫剂。唯一的一种Lindane 稍微有效果,但不明显。

  3. 翻耕土壤的方法不容易达到杀死虫卵所需温度,效果不好。


  The reading lists three way to prevent the spread of New Guinean Flatworms and the lecturer gives his prospective to prove that all those methods don’t work.

  The first methods is to introduce the predator or other local birds to kill them. However, the lecturer points out that the imported species will eventually become another kind of biological invasion and the local birds actually don’t like to eat them due to the bad taste. Thus, the biological control seems unlikely to be effective.

  Another way is to use pesticide to control the population of flatworms. As to this way, the professor regards that we don’t have the certain and effective pesticide to kill the New Guinean Flatworms. The only one we can use is Lindane, but actually it is not sufficient. In other words, chemical control is not suitable.

  The third method is to add some powerful fertilization so that the heat will kill the eggs. The professor claims that the temperature are not high enough to kill the small pests and pest eggs. Rather, they may be the great threat of the local crops, which means that we cannot use this way to stop the spread.


  Rather than help children with their schoolwork, parents should encourage their children do their work independently.


  Completing schoolwork on time is actually not easy tasks for most students, especially for those underachievers. In this situation, some parents can’t bear to see their kids work late till midnight but with little progress, so they help their children to do the homework. Nevertheless, the parents should realize the importance and meaning of assignments and children will be the great beneficiaries if they do the work by themselves.

  The first benefit is to cultivate their learning ability. With the help of parents or teachers, students hardly develop their own way to think, to analysis and even to explore the unknown world. Most of them will be frustrated when they find that they cannot be well-informed and learn something new at work. On the contrary, students who are asked to do homework alone have already been equipped with certain ability about how to deal with the difficulties in school time, and because of this, they prepare well for the future challenge, regardless of the unknown and the unexpected. Compared with the future benefit, the current difficulties in learning alone, clearly, doesn’t matter.

  Aside from necessary capabilities, mental independence is another factor to ensure their bright future. The kids who get used to working alone surely rely more on themselves in the future. My cousin Lily is such a girl whose father always ask her to solve the school work by herself. She are never afraid of the unknown challenges and always strong enough to be the pillar of her friends when they study abroad and live in a foreign city. I don’t think there is anything wrong with an individual act weakly among his or her close friends and lover, but when they truly need to rely on themselves, they are supposed to be stronger.

  When I talk with some parents about this issue, they think that their children are too young to avoid many mistakes in their schoolwork, which may finally destroy their self-confidence. How much do they know about their “baby”? They just look down upon them and seldom trust that the children can make up their mistakes and more importantly, learn how to be responsible for their schoolwork. If they have never made mistake and experienced the process of solving problem, that will surely lead to the consequence of “no confidence”.

  In conclusion, in the way of educating students, it is significant to encourage them to complete task and learn by themselves. Only through that way can students be really aware of the knowledge and methodology learned in school and can they be well-developed into individuals.


  第一篇文章:Prey Fish(饵料鱼)

  文章以并列平行的结构分六段讲解了prey fish为了躲避捕食者进化出的很多特征。比如成群行动,迷惑性动作,快速移动等等。同时讲解了一些捕食者的应对策略,比如抓捕小鱼掉队的鱼等。


  TPO11:Begging by Nestling

  TPO15:A Warm-blooded Turtle

  第二篇文章:The Fossil Record(化石记录)



  TPO20:Fossil Preservation.

  第三篇文章:When did Human First Colonize America?(北美地区最早的人类)

  文章对比了两个地点发现的一些工具,但是信息还是不够多,无法证明人类什么时候出现在北美地区。最后介绍了一个新发现,即美洲最早的文化和梭鲁特文化(Solutrean culture)有相同之处。


  TPO5:The Origins of Pacific Island People

  TPO9:Colonizing the Americas Via the Northwest Coast


  maintaining = keeping

  identifiable = recognizable

  attest = confirm

  ingestion = swallowing

  unintentionally = accidentally

  comprehensive = complete

  inherent = built-in

  fluid = liquid

  interpret = understand

  copious = abundant

  assertion = claim


  C1-office hours-实习工作



  TPO17C2-Part-time Job Schedule

  C2-service encounters-俱乐部

  学生成立和组建了drama club,之前的表演很成功。来跟老师讨论接下来的表演,老师提供了一些关于剧本,学生演员的招募等等建议。另一方面还建议学生想办法宣传他们的节目。因为学校有两个表演drama的俱乐部,因此彼此之间有竞争。在宣传方面,老师建议学生可以通过门票优惠吸引观众,同时还可以发部分节目视频到网上吸引学生观众。


  TPO30C1-Reserve a place for a schoolclub

  L1-Geology-tectonic plates



  TPO31L2-Geology-Movement of TectonicPlates


  讨论绘画艺术的一个流派,pointillism【点画派,点画法:用不同的色点排列组合作画】。讲到了该流派的出现和发展过程。其中举了画家VincentVan Gogh(梵高)为例,说到梵高是这个流派最典型的代表人物。同时对梵高的绘画技巧、手法、风格等做了讨论,来印证该艺术流派。同时对比了pointillism与neoclassicism【新古典主义】之间的在绘画上的观点的不同。


  TPO30C2-Writing about Van Gogh’spainting

  TPO21L4-Arts-Alice Neel


  讨论organic pesticide【生态杀虫剂】在农业方面的应用。主要讲到organicpesticide的制成,效果,以及优势。讲座里将其与chemical synthesis pesticide【化学合成杀虫剂】做比较。讨论了与化学合成杀虫剂相比,organicpesticide各方面的长处和优势。




  讨论人们研究历史使用的两种证据来源,the primary historical sources and thesecondary historical sources. 【一手资料和二手资料,二手资料是根据原始的一手资料产生的】讲座重点讨论第二种,即二手的历史证据来源,同时使用了postcards的历史发展过程来证明如何使用这些大众的物品作为证据考证那个时期发生过的历史。讲座提到了postcard的出现、发展、流行等各个时期的情况以及原因。


  TPO8L3-History-Development in VisionCorrection / TPO46C2-法国大革命-历史话题


  T 1

  Three ways to do a history project


  2.Interviewing the elders

  3. Writingthesis

  Sample Answer:

  Shooting videos is what I thinkthe best way to carry out a history project. Carefully made videos are morelikely to be effective attention grabbers. We can use videos to record thevisual facts and sounds. Like last time, when my historical architecture groupwas starting off with a project about some old buildings from Ming Dynasty in asmall village, we took several trips there. Sometimes the weather was goodwhile sometimes it rained or anything. With the digital single lens camera, wemanaged to capture the beauty of the buildings in different lights. Also,videos of high quality nowadays can go viral on the Internet within days. Wecan absolutely post the videos on various social media platforms and promotethem to attract attention on a large scale.


  20160123-Which course about history are youinterested in? 1. Science history 2. Art history or history 3. 20th century

  20160313-Which would you recommend to build fora university to enhance its students’ living and studying condition? 1.Cafeteria, 2. Swimming pool 3. The expansion of campus laboratories

  20160903-The best way to learn about Italianculture: 1.Watching Italian movies 2.Having Italian food 3. Attending lectures

  20161112-If university plans to add a new coursethat is not being offered to students, which of the following courses wouldattract most students? 1. Sound engineering and recording 2. History of rockmusic 3. Film studies

  T 2

  Preference:Some people believe that class discussions should be part of the grade. Othersbelieve that only written assignments and exams should be part of the grade.Which one do you agree and why?

  Sample Answer:

  Class discussions should surelybe involved in the evaluation of students, because students’ participation inclass discussions clearly shows their certain abilities and how well they haveabsorbed the points from the lectures. As a literature student, I feel I amgreatly motivated by the requirement of engagement in discussions. I have tobetter prepare my preview in order to answer some warm-up questions from myteachers and offer some constructive perspectives while discussing some topicsfrom the literary works we are studying. Also, the ability to articulate andexpress oneself matters in workplaces. According to some HRs, this is also whatthey will look at when they are selecting potential assets for companies.Making class discussions part of the grade is naturally necessary for raisingstudents’ awareness.


  20160409-A/D: Leaving some time for groupdiscussion in class is beneficial for study.

  20160827-A/D: It is important for children tolearn to draw or paint.

  20161016-Preference: Deciding on your majorbefore entering college or after taking some courses.

  20161119-A/D: It is never too late to get adegree in university.

  T 3

  学校决定:学校要求fund academic conference把activitybudget派发给学生用于参加学术会议。







  TPO44-Create Student Committee to Decide Fundingfor Student Organizations

  T 4

  术语Maturation Effect: 在研究过程中,实验对象可能最终会体现研究人员预计的变化,但是原因可能是自身的成长,而不是所研究的实验因素,实验结论的准确性受到影响。

  Maturation effect means a change in thecondition of a disease or organism that occurs naturally over time and not as aresult of treatment.



  TPO15-Experiement Effects

  TPO16-Social Loafing

  T 5

  Problem: Primary speaker学生编辑,面临时间冲突:开会时间和去朋友参与表演的音乐会;




  TPO27-Retirement Party

  TPO30-Late for Film






  TPO9-Plants Defense Mechanism

  TPO30-Suburface Locomotion