我们之前给大家介绍过托福阅读的十大重点题型,其中有一种就叫做组织结构题,这个题型我们也要进行全面深入的分析,然后才能更好地掌握下来。下面就是托福阅读组织结构题实例解答分析,通过实例希望可以帮助大家更好地理解。

  一:单个段落组织结构题

  单个段落组织结构题常见提问方式:Which of the following best describes how paragraph X is organized?/What is the author's primary purpose in paragraph X?等。

  解题切入点:段落首尾句。

  真题演练:

  Traditionally, it was believed that the transition to agriculture was the result of a worldwide population crisis. It was argued that once hunter-gathers had occupied the whole world, the population started to grow everywhere and food became scarce; agriculture would have been a solution to this problem. We know, however, that contemporary hunter-gatherer societies control their population in a variety of ways. The idea of a world population crisis is therefore unlikely, although population pressure might have arisen in some areas.

  Which of the following best describes the way paragraph 2 is organized?

  A A possible explanation for a phenomenon is presented and then criticized.

  B Two similar ways of accounting for a puzzling fact are considered.

  C Early societies’response to a problem is contrasted with contemporary societies’response.

  D A prehistoric development is first explained in traditional terms and then in contemporary terms.

  解题步骤详述:

  1.判断题型,题目问的是第二段的结构,因此属于单个段落结构题。

  2.理解段落首尾句,原文段落首尾句的意思分别是:“传统上认为农业的转变是世界人口危机导致的结果。”“尽管某些地区出现人口压力,但是世界人口危机的观点是不可能的。”

  3.推测结构,结合首尾句可推出本段落结构大致为:先陈述了某个现象的原因, 然后又把该原因否决掉。

  4.找出正确答案:A中提到criticize 符合上一步的结构猜想,正确。B中的two similar ways在原文中未提及过,错误。C中关于早期社会和当代社会的比较在原文中也没有提及,错误。D中的递进关系不符合原文结构,错误。因此,本题答案为A选项。

  二:多个段落组织结构题

  多个段落组织结构题常见提问方式:What is the relationship between paragraphs X and Y in the passage?/What role does Paragraph X play in the passage?等。

  解题切入点:段落首尾句+结构关键词。

  真题演练:

  Much population movement involved the opening up of new lands for rice cultivation. Two things made this possible and encouraged it to happen. First, the opening of the kingdom to the full force of international trade by the Bowring Treaty (1855) rapidly encouraged economic specialization in the growing of rice, mainly to feed the rice-deficient portions of Asia (India and China in particular). The average annual volume of rice exported from Siam grew from under 60 million kilograms per year in the late 1850s to more than 660 million kilograms per year at the turn of the century; and over the same period the average price per kilogram doubled. During the same period, the area planted in rice increased from about 230,000 acres to more than350,000 acres. This growth was achieve as the result of the collective decisions of thousands of peasants families to expand the amount of land they cultivated, clear and plant new land, or adopt more intensive methods of agriculture.

  They were able to do so because of our second consideration. They were relatively freer than they had been half a century earlier. Over the course of the Fifth Reign (1868 – 1910), the ties that bound rural people to the aristocracy and local ruling elites were greatly reduced. Peasants now paid a tax on individuals instead of being required to render labor service to the government. Under these conditions, it made good sense to thousands of peasant families to in effect work full-time at what they had been able to do only part-time previously because of the requirement to work for the government: grow rice for the marketplace.

  Which of the following best describes the relationship between paragraphs 3 and 4 in the passage?

  A Paragraph 4 provides further evidence of the economic growth of Siam discussed in paragraph 3.

  B Paragraph 4 continues the discussion begun in paragraph 3 of farming improvements that led to economic growth.

  C Paragraph4 examines a particular effect of the Bowring Treaty mentioned in paragraph 3.

  D Paragraph 4 discusses the second of two factors that contributed to the expansion of rice farming mentioned in paragraph 3.

  解题步骤详述:

  1.判断题型,题目问的是第三段和第四段的关系,可知此题是多个段落结构题。

  2.阅读两段的首尾句并找结构关键词,第三段第二句中有提到two things,第三句紧接着提到first的内容,但后文并未出现其他内容,直到第四段第一句中出现了second。

  3.推测结构,根据两段中出现过的列举信号词“first”和“second”可得出两段是并列关系。

  4.找出正确答案:A中的further 属于递进关系,不符合结构,错误。B中的continues仍然属于递进关系,错误。C中effect,属于因果关系,错误。D中second of two符合并列关系,正确。因此,本题答案为D选项。

  三:组织结构题规律总结

  通过上面两道例题,可以观察出结构题在考察时容易出现以下四种关系:1.并列关系(first,second,one of two等);2.转折关系(but,however,not,impossible等);3.递进关系(continue,further,more over,in addition等);4.因果关系(therefore,because,reason,effect等)。所以,在遇到组织结构题时可联系上述关系对号入座,快速选出正确选项。

  以上的内容是托福阅读组织结构题实例解答分析,大家可以通过一些具体的题目来练习一下。

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