很多考生们反映托福阅读的指代题看似简单,但是实际上非常出现模棱两可的情况,如果花费的时间越多,往往越容易做错。到底如何解决这类问题呢?下面小编就带来了托福阅读方法关于指代题。

  考试特点

  总结起来指代题有以下三个特点:

  1、问题除了常规代词(it/they/them/these)外,还有which, this等语法指代;

  Which是定语从句或者非限制定语从句的关系指代词,此外新托福阅读真题出现过this + problem/view等非常规语法指代题。

  2、代词所指必须是前面提到过的词;

  代词指代在英语里面可分为前指和后指,在新托福阅读考试里面只考前指,也就是指代前文提到过的事物。

  3、答案可以是词、短语或者前面谈到的一件事情;

  新托福阅读指代题突破我们常规的指代概念,不局限于指代单个词,它可以是短语,甚至是完整的一句话。

托福阅读方法

  问题形式:The word “X” in the passage refers to……

  考试内容

  托福阅读常考查的代词包括:they, them, it, this, these, which, others, some, none, this + n等。

  首先同学们要掌握这些词本身的意思,考查的内容虽然是指代,只有了解这些代词本身的意思,才能在此基础上推导出来该词的同义词。

  1. They:数代词,既可以指代有生命的东西,也可以指代无生命的东西。

  eg: My father and mother are here. They visit every week.

  Take your books, they might be useful.

  2. Them: they的宾格,同样即可以指代有生命的东西,也可以指代无生命的东西。

  eg: My father and brother are playing basketball, I bought drinks for them.

  Where are my shoes? I can’t find them.

  3. It: 指代单数名词,可以指代无生命的东西,也可以指代有生命的东西(指代动物),一般是特指(the + n); 此外还可以指代前面所说的整件事情。

  eg: I pick up the plate and put it on the table.

  Where is the mouse? The cat ate it.

  He said he can swim across that big river, but I don’t believe it.

  4. This: 可以指代前面说的事物(单数可数名词或者不可数名词)、动作、过程等,通常是指代离它最近的东西。在托福阅读里面通常用作限定词,形式:this + n

  eg: Many millions of years after ferns evolved (but long before the Hawaiian Island were born from the sea), another kind of flora evolved on Earth: the seed-bearing plants. This was a wonderful biological invention.

  This根据词本身的意思,是指离它最近的事物,所以答案是the development of plants that produce seeds

  5. These: this的复数形式,指代复数名词,其它用法同this一样

  eg: They carried on their farm operations with mules and they had no surplus of these, seldom more than four.

  本文就是托福阅读方法关于指代题。

  6. Which:(非限制)定语从句中的关系代词,指代前面的先行词,先行词可以是单个名词、短语或者一个句子

  eg: He has a book which is written by Hemingway.

  He likes reading books, which is a good habit.

  She said she’d been waiting for an hour, which was true.

  7. 不定代词:托福阅读常考不定代词有both, some, other, and none etc. 不定代词,用在句子中可以做主语、宾语、表语和定语等。

  eg: Some of his stories were quite amusing.(主语)

  They are both doctors.(表语)

  These trousers are wet—I’ll change into my other ones.(定语)

  She had none of her mother’s beauty.(宾语)

  所以不定代词在新托福阅读里面的指代,要具体看不定代词在句子中所充当的语法成分。

  解题方法

  做对指代题要考虑三个因素:指代词本身的意思、句与句之间的语义关系和句子的结构(语法)。指代词本身意思是基础,语义关系和句子结构都是以指代词本身意思为基础的,我们已经分析了各类指代词的意思,所以这里我们会着重以句子语义和句子结构为出发点,并把指代词的意思嵌入到语义和句子结构分析中。

  1

  语义关系

  语义关系要求所指代词带入句子中要符合句子意思。

  Since the laws of physics, not some arbitrary decision, have determined the general form of applied-art objects, they follow basic patterns, so much so that functional forms can vary only within certain limits.

  The word they in the passage refers to

  a.applied-art objects

  b.the laws of physics

  c.containers

  d.the sides of pots

  托福指代题的考试特点是必须指代前面提到过的词,所以可以排除c和d两个选项。剩下a和b选项代入句子,原文译为:因为物理原理,而不是任意想法,决定了应用艺术品的普遍形式,应用艺术品/物理原理需要遵守基本的模式,这样它们的功能形式才不会相差太远。根据句子意思,应该是应用艺术品需要遵守基本的模式,而不是物理原理,所以我们可以推断出来答案是a。

  1

  句子结构

  大部分同学在做指代题时感觉词汇太难,很难从语义上去推导出来正确答案,那么我们可以从句子结构分析入手。

  The fins are stiff, smooth, and narrow, qualities that also help cut drag. When not in use, the fins are tucked into special grooves or depressions so that they lie flush with the body and do not break up its smooth contours.

  The word they in the passage refers to

  a.qualities

  b.fins

  c.grooves

  d.depressions

  They在句子中作主语,so that表递进,前后主语应该一致,所以答案是b。

  表递进逻辑的关系词还有such that。

  表转折逻辑的关系词:however, yet, while and whereas etc.

  表让步的逻辑关系词:though, even if/though, despite and in spite of etc.

  表条件的逻辑关系词:if, when and unless etc.

  表原因的逻辑关系词:because, because of, therefore, so, hence, thus and since etc.

  总结

  有些情况我们需要结合这三种因素来综合考虑指代题。

  以上就是小编提供的托福阅读方法关于指代题,指代题出题频率比较高,托福官方指南给出考试的机率大概是0-2题,所以对于想在阅读上拿高分的考生来说至关重要。

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