deterioration = worsen condition
end = purpose
simultaneously = at the same time
trigger = start
vocation = occupation
justification = good reason
conversely =in contrast
uniformally = consistently
constrained = forced
innumerable = countless
最早Pleistocene Climate 石器时代冰川移动。Pleistocene开始于1.6million years ago的北极，先说用陆地上的植物痕迹之类的看冰川的移动和撤回，区分冰期和间冰期，又提到用海洋里的贝壳中含有的O18和O16的比例来判断，因为这两种氧元素的重量不一样所以温暖时期蒸发的量不同因此存留的量也不同。
类似阅读文章：TPO10-2 Variations in the Climate
OG Geology and Landscape
A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries. Glaciers slowly deform and flow due to stresses induced by their weight, creating crevasses, seracs, and other distinguishing features. They also abrade rock and debris from their substrate to create landforms such as cirques and moraines. Glaciers form only on land and are distinct from the much thinner sea ice and lake ice that form on the surface of bodies of water.
Glaciers move, or flow, downhill due to gravity and the internal deformation of ice. Ice behaves like a brittle solid until its thickness exceeds about 50 m. The pressure on ice deeper than 50 m causes plastic flow. At the molecular level, ice consists of stacked layers of molecules with relatively weak bonds between layers. When the stress on the layer above exceeds the inter-layer binding strength, it moves faster than the layer below.
Glaciers also move through basal sliding. In this process, a glacier slides over the terrain on which it sits, lubricated by the presence of liquid water. The water is created from ice that melts under high pressure from frictional heating. Basal sliding is dominant in temperate, or warm-based glaciers.
讲述Pyramid at Saqqara, 埃及金字塔。Pyramid at Saqqara是埃及第二世皇帝建造的，后来第四世也建了金字塔，然后讲到了胡夫金字塔，它是现存最大的最具美学价值的金字塔。具体建筑结构还没完全研究出来，但其耗材之多、历时之长体现了当时埃及君主的政治权利和举国体制。推测是尼罗河泛滥的时候建成，因为那个时候劳动力比较充裕。金字塔也体现了皇权的至高无上，最中间是皇帝的陵寝，周围是他的官员们，最后又讲金字塔的角度为什么是52度，一种猜测是力学上的原因，另一种是宗教里认为这样能让君主上天堂。
类似阅读文章：TPO8-1 The Rise of Teotihuacan
A pyramid is a structure whose outer surfaces are triangular and converge to a single point at the top, making the shape roughly a pyramid in the geometric sense. The base of a pyramid can be trilateral, quadrilateral, or any polygon shape, meaning that a pyramid has at least three outer triangular surfaces (at least four faces including the base). The square pyramid, with square base and four triangular outer surfaces, is a common version.
A pyramid's design, with the majority of the weight closer to the ground, and with the pyramidion on top means that less material higher up on the pyramid will be pushing down from above. This distribution of weight allowed early civilizations to create stable monumental structures. It has been demonstrated that the common shape of the pyramids of antiquity, from Egypt to Central America, represents the dry-stone construction that requires minimum human work.
Pyramids have been built by civilizations in many parts of the world. For thousands of years, the largest structures on Earth were pyramids—first the Red Pyramid in the Dashur Necropolis and then the Great Pyramid of Khufu, both of Egypt, the latter is the only one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World still remaining. Khufu's Pyramid is built mainly of limestone (with large red granite blocks used in some interior chambers), and is considered an architectural masterpiece. It contains over 2,000,000 blocks ranging in weight from 2.5 tonnes (5,500 lb) to 15 tonnes (33,000 lb) and is built on a square base with sides measuring about 230 m (755 ft), covering 13 acres. Its four sides face the four cardinal points precisely and it has an angle of 52 degrees. The original height of the Pyramid was 146.5 m (488 ft), but today it is only 137 m (455 ft) high, the 9 m (33 ft) that is missing is due to the theft of the fine quality white Tura limestone covering, or casing stones, for construction in Cairo. It is still the tallest pyramid. The largest pyramid by volume is the Great Pyramid of Cholula, in the Mexican state ofPuebla.
类似阅读文章：TPO 28-3 Buck Rubs and Buck Scrapes
TPO 17-2 Animal Signals in the Rain Forest
Apiculture is the maintenance of honey bee colonies, commonly in hives, by humans. A beekeeper keeps bees in order to collect their honey and other products that the hive produces (including beeswax, propolis, pollen, and royal jelly), to pollinate crops, or to produce bees for sale to other beekeepers. A location where bees are kept is called an apiary or "bee yard".
Depictions of humans collecting honey from wild bees date to 15,000 years ago. Beekeeping in pottery vessels began about 9,000 years ago in North Africa. Domestication is shown in Egyptian art from around 4,500 years ago. Simple hives and smoke were used and honey was stored in jars, some of which were found in the tombs of pharaohs such as Tutankhamun. It wasn't until the 18th century that European understanding of the colonies and biology of bees allowed the construction of the moveable comb hive so that honey could be harvested without destroying the entire colony.
Collecting honey from wild bee colonies is one of the most ancient human activities and is still practiced by aboriginal societies in parts of Africa, Asia, Australia, and South America. In Africa, honeyguide birds have evolved a mutualistrelationship with humans, leading them to hives and participating in the feast. This suggests honey harvesting by humans may be of great antiquity. Some of the earliest evidence of gathering honey from wild colonies is from rock paintings, dating to aroundUpper Paleolithic (13,000 BCE). Gathering honey from wild bee colonies is usually done by subduing the bees with smoke and breaking open the tree or rocks where the colony is located, often resulting in the physical destruction of the nest.