Strategies: Note taking
听力技巧 ( 句句逻辑关系-signal words)
What to take in notes
How to take notes ( 提纲式 outlining)
point 1 + eg1.
point 2 + eg2.
What to speak in Q6:
1main idea + 2points+2examples
The professor lectures on …
During the lecture, the professor mentions …
In the lecture, the professor focuses on …
The professor notes …
The lecturer mentions …
The professor begins his/her lecture by mentioning that …
The subject of the talk is …
During the lecture, the professor talks about…
The topic of the lecture is …
The lecturer gives a talk on …
The lecture tells us about….
From the talk we learn that
In the lecture, the professor tells about two __________. One is_____; the other is ________.
Then the professor gives two examples to further illustrate them. The first one is, _________.
The second is, ___________.
Now listen to part of a psychology lecture.
Well, let’s talk about the two methods most generally applied by people to reinforce their behavior.
You know, in the field of psychology, reinforcement of behavior means that people consciously strengthen certain acts through applying a stimulus.
However, based on their various properties, the stimuli used by people to reinforce their behaviors could be classified as either positive or negative. To help you better understand the difference, I will show you some examples.
First, suppose that you hate to get up early, but sometimes you have to do so. Then you could choose to encourage yourself to get up early by using either a positive or a negative stimulus. To be brief, a positive stimulus is to add things to your daily life to help you make the decision easier. For example, you can reward yourself with a very nice breakfast if you get up early.
A negative stimulus, on the contrary, is to cut things you don’t like out of your daily routine. For example, if you do not enjoy taking a shower in the early morning, you can take it in the evening instead. Therefore, when you have to get up early in the morning, you might feel better because you have cut things you don’t like out of your morning schedule.
reinf : ← applying a stimulus
﹢ : (add things) Eg. nice brf.
﹣ : (cut things) Eg. Shower pm.
【讲课要点】：心理学中的 reinforcement(自我激励)，分为 positive reinforcement 和 negative
1) positive (add the pleasure)：早起奖励自己好的 food，这样就可以让你喜欢早起这种 behavior。
2) negative(remove the unpleasant behavior)，不喜欢早上 shower，那么可以改在晚上，这样人也就不会那么讨厌早起了。
When the lecture has ended, the picture of the professor will be replaced by the following:
1main idea +2points+2examples 转述 听力材料中教授的 1 个中心+2 个要点+2 个例子
2. NO personal ideas
3. Make listener who hasn’t heard the passage understand what is going on.
2 个要点 15”
example 1 15”
example 2 15”
中心思想: 2 句
要点 1 1句
例子 1 3句
要点 2 1句
例子 2 3句
语法：时态 -- 通常现在时, 偶尔过去时(例子)
Sample answer :
In the lecture, the professor tells about two methods most generally applied to reinforce people.
One is to apply the positive stimulus to strengthen certain acts; the other is the negative stimulus .
A positive stimulus is to add things to your daily life to help you make the decision easier. A negative stimulus is to cut things you don’t like off your daily routine. Then the professor gives two examples to further illustrate them.
For example, supposed you hate to get up early, but sometimes you have to do so. Then you could choose to encourage yourself to get up early by rewarding yourself with a very nice breakfast, so that’s a positive stimulus because you add things to your daily routine.
For another example, if you don’t want to get up early just because you have to take a shower early in the morning, you can decide to take it in the evening instead. So you might feel better because you have cut things you don’t like off your morning schedule. And that’s a negative stimulus.