备考托福口语的时候,同学们一定不能忽视了练习的作用,并且也不是一味的刷题而不进行分析和总结方法,考试之前还要养成良好的应试习惯,口语部分的时间也很短所以也要能够重视其中听力部分的理解。

  Strategies 解题策略:

  主要加强学术场景的了解+记笔记的能力。

  ★按照答题顺序,带着问题听记:

  讲课主题(一个中心?)

  两个侧面(两个基本点?)

  分别列举的 例子是什么?

  Strategies: Note taking

  笔记

  听力技巧 ( 句句逻辑关系-signal words)

  What to take in notes

  Main idea

  Point 1

  Point 2

  Example 1

  Example 2

  How to take notes ( 提纲式 outlining)

  Main idea

  point 1 + eg1.

  point 2 + eg2.

  Speaking

  What to speak in Q6:

  1main idea + 2points+2examples

  Beginners

  The professor lectures on …

  During the lecture, the professor mentions …

  In the lecture, the professor focuses on …

  The professor notes …

  The lecturer mentions …

  The professor begins his/her lecture by mentioning that …

  The subject of the talk is …

  During the lecture, the professor talks about…

  The topic of the lecture is …

  The lecturer gives a talk on …

  The lecture tells us about….

  From the talk we learn that

  模板:

  In the lecture, the professor tells about two __________. One is_____; the other is ________.

  Then the professor gives two examples to further illustrate them. The first one is, _________.

  The second is, ___________.

  例:

  Listening

  Narrator

  Now listen to part of a psychology lecture.

  Listening scripts

  Well, let’s talk about the two methods most generally applied by people to reinforce their behavior.

  You know, in the field of psychology, reinforcement of behavior means that people consciously strengthen certain acts through applying a stimulus.

  However, based on their various properties, the stimuli used by people to reinforce their behaviors could be classified as either positive or negative. To help you better understand the difference, I will show you some examples.

  First, suppose that you hate to get up early, but sometimes you have to do so. Then you could choose to encourage yourself to get up early by using either a positive or a negative stimulus. To be brief, a positive stimulus is to add things to your daily life to help you make the decision easier. For example, you can reward yourself with a very nice breakfast if you get up early.

  A negative stimulus, on the contrary, is to cut things you don’t like out of your daily routine. For example, if you do not enjoy taking a shower in the early morning, you can take it in the evening instead. Therefore, when you have to get up early in the morning, you might feel better because you have cut things you don’t like out of your morning schedule.

  Sample notes:

  reinf : ← applying a stimulus

  ﹢ : (add things) Eg. nice brf.

  ﹣ : (cut things) Eg. Shower pm.

  T6

  【讲课要点】:心理学中的 reinforcement(自我激励),分为 positive reinforcement 和 negative

  reinforcement 两种,即增加能够激发个人兴趣的东西和消除自己不喜欢的东西。教授具体举了两个能实现早起上班的例子。

  1) positive (add the pleasure):早起奖励自己好的 food,这样就可以让你喜欢早起这种 behavior。

  2) negative(remove the unpleasant behavior),不喜欢早上 shower,那么可以改在晚上,这样人也就不会那么讨厌早起了。

  When the lecture has ended, the picture of the professor will be replaced by the following:

  Question:

  Speaking

  Note:

  1main idea +2points+2examples 转述 听力材料中教授的 1 个中心+2 个要点+2 个例子

  2. NO personal ideas

  3. Make listener who hasn’t heard the passage understand what is going on.

  答案要求:

  时间分配:

  中心思想 15”

  2 个要点 15”

  example 1 15”

  example 2 15”

  句子量:10 句

  中心思想: 2 句

  要点 1 1句

  例子 1 3句

  要点 2 1句

  例子 2 3句

  语法:时态 -- 通常现在时, 偶尔过去时(例子)

  词汇:切忌重复

  Sample answer :

  In the lecture, the professor tells about two methods most generally applied to reinforce people.

  One is to apply the positive stimulus to strengthen certain acts; the other is the negative stimulus .

  A positive stimulus is to add things to your daily life to help you make the decision easier. A negative stimulus is to cut things you don’t like off your daily routine. Then the professor gives two examples to further illustrate them.

  For example, supposed you hate to get up early, but sometimes you have to do so. Then you could choose to encourage yourself to get up early by rewarding yourself with a very nice breakfast, so that’s a positive stimulus because you add things to your daily routine.

  For another example, if you don’t want to get up early just because you have to take a shower early in the morning, you can decide to take it in the evening instead. So you might feel better because you have cut things you don’t like off your morning schedule. And that’s a negative stimulus.

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