ultimately=finally viable=capable of succeeding
constraint =limit hence=therefore abrupt =sudden
主要内容：英国的工业革命。重复2016年9月10日上午场考试内容，主要说的是如何挖煤，蒸汽机的发明，煤的运输和铁路建造。 有些人认为是cotton machine促成英国的工业革命，但是这一点不足以促成。英国那时候挖煤供暖，后来伦敦煤挖光了，就开始去远处、深处挖，于是煤矿里有水，所以为了排水，就发明了steam engine，但是那时候的engine效率不高，不过反正煤有的是，效率不高但是利用很频繁。但是用于挖煤排水的engine用途很窄，也不是它促成的工业革命。真正促成的是engine在火车上的使用。为了把煤从远处运到伦敦，发明了火车，就能降低运输成本。同时纺纱机工业化后，也促成了织布机的工业化。
TPO-6 Powering the Industrial Revolution
TPO-26 Energy and the Industrial Revolution
TPO-34 The Development of Steam Power
The steam engine was one of the most important technologies of the Industrial Revolution, although steam did not replace water power in importance in Britain until after the Industrial Revolution. From Englishman Thomas Newcomen's atmospheric engine, of 1712, through major developments by Scottish inventor and mechanical engineer James Watt, the steam engine began to be used in many industrial settings, not just in mining, where the first engines had been used to pump water from deep workings. Early mills had run successfully with water power, but by using a steam engine a factory could be located anywhere, not just close to water. Water power varied with the seasons and was not available at times due to freezing, floods and dry spells.
In 1775 Watt formed an engine-building and engineering partnership with manufacturer Matthew Boulton. The partnership of Boulton & Watt became one of the most important businesses of the Industrial Revolution and served as a kind of creative technical centre for much of the British economy. The partners solved technical problems and spread the solutions to other companies. Similar firms did the same thing in other industries and were especially important in the machine tool industry. These interactions between companies were important because they reduced the amount of research time and expense that each business had to spend working with its own resources. The technological advances of the Industrial Revolution happened more quickly because firms often shared information, which they then could use to create new techniques or products.
From mines to mills, steam engines found many uses in a variety of industries. The introduction of steam engines improved productivity and technology, and allowed the creation of smaller and better engines. After Richard Trevithick's development of the high-pressure engine, transport-applications became possible, and steam engines found their way into boats, railways, farms and road vehicles. Steam engines are an example of how changes brought by industrialization led to even more changes in other areas.
The development of the stationary steam engine was an essential early element of the Industrial Revolution, however it should be remembered that for most of the period of the Industrial Revolution the majority of industries still relied on wind and water power as well as horse and man-power for driving small machines.