托福阅读修辞目的题对于托福考生的逻辑理解有极大的要求,在考试中如何在极短的时间内判断是从定位句的前面,还是后面进行阅读理解是困扰所在。今天来看几类明显的逻辑指示词。

  Paragraph 3: The first wells were drilled into the Ogallala during the drought years of the early 1930s. The ensuing rapid expansion of irrigation agriculture, especially from the 1950s onward, transformed the economy of the region.

  More than 100,000 wells now tap the Ogallala. Modern irrigation devices, each capable of spraying 4.5 million liters of water a day, have produced a landscape dominated by geometric patterns of circular green islands of crops. Ogallala water has enabled the High Plains region to supply significant amounts of the cotton, sorghum, wheat, and corn grown in the United States.

  In addition, 40 percent of American grain-fed beef cattle are fattened here.

  5. In paragraph 3, why does the author provide the information that 40 percent of American cattle are fattened in the High Plains?

  To suggest that crop cultivation is not the most important part of the economy of the High Plains

  To indicate that not all economic activity in the High Plains is dependent on irrigation

  To provide another example of how water from the Ogallala has transformed the economy of the High Plains

  To contrast cattle-fattening practices in the High Plains with those used in other region of the United States

  通过题目阅读可以由High Plain定位到原文的最后一句。那么考查的点如何判断呢?我们可以看到定位到的句子的第一个单词为in addition,表示而且的递进关系,意味着本句为上一句话的递进。因此可以轻松判断本题所考查的句子为本段的倒数第二句,因此可以通过前后句的理解得出两句话对经济进行描述,答案为C。

  同样的,了解到in addition是对前一句话内容的补充递进,那么,TPO31的这道题就可以迎刃而解。

  Paragraph: Whether Head Start is seen as successful or not depends on the lens through which one is looking. If, for instance, the program is expected to provide long-term increases in IQ (intelligence quotient) scores, it is a disappointment. Although graduates of Head Start programs tend to show immediate IQ gains, these increases do lot last.

  On the other hand, it is clear that Head Start is meeting its goal of getting preschoolers ready for school. Preschoolers who participate in Head Start are better prepared for future schooling than those who do not. Furthermore, graduates of Head Start programs have better future school grade. Finally, some research suggests that ultimately Head Start graduates show higher academic performance at the end of high school, although the gains are modest.

  In addition, results from other types of preschool readiness programs indicate that those who participate and graduate are less like to repeat grades, and they are more like to complete school than readiness program, for every dollar spent on the program, taxpayers saved seven dollars by the time the graduates reached the age of 27.

  6.In paragraph 4, the author mentions the “results from other types of readiness programs”to

  A.provide support for the idea that preschool readiness programs have been somewhat successful

  B.question the idea that HeadStart is more effective than other preschool readiness programs

  C.indicate school completion is usually the most reliable indicator of success in most readiness programs

  D.emphasize that participation in readiness programs can be increased if costs are reduced

  通过审题可以得知,题目中所提到的句子在第二段的第一句。同样的,本句的第一个单词为in addition,我们可以判断本段是对上一段内容的递进。通过浏览上一段大意我们可以得出上一段主要在描述Head Start是成功的。因此本题可以轻松得知答案为A。

  因此考生在日常备考的过程中需要多注意题目之前的共同点,多注意总结归纳,由此得到事半功倍的效果。

  考生们在日常做题总结整理时,对于托福阅读的修辞目的题的感触多半是往定位句的前一句去看。那么为什么是前面呢?在有for example、in addition和in general等明显逻辑词的时候肯定是毫无疑问往前看。那么在没有逻辑词的时候呢?例如

  Paragraph 3: The numbers of deer have fluctuated markedly since the entry of Europeans into Puget Sound country. The early explorers and settlers told of abundant deer in the early 1800s and yet almost in the same breath bemoaned the lack of this succulent game animal. Famous explorers of the north American frontier, Lewis and Clark arrived at the mouth of the Columbia River on November 14, 1805, in nearly starved circumstances.

  They had experienced great difficulty finding game west of the Rockies and not until the second of December did they kill their first elk. To keep 40 people alive that winter, they consumed approximately 150 elk and 20 deer. And when game moved out of the lowlands in early spring, the expedition decided to return east rather than face possible starvation.

  Later on in the early years of the nineteenth century, when Fort Vancouver became the headquarters of the Hudson's Bay Company, deer populations continued to fluctuate. David Douglas, Scottish botanical explorer of the 1830s, found a disturbing change in the animal life around the fort during the period between his first visit in 1825 and his final contact with the fort in 1832. A recent Douglas biographer states:" The deer which once picturesquely dotted the meadows around the fort were gone [in 1832], hunted to extermination in order to protect the crops."

  5. The author tells the story of the explorers Lewis and Clark in paragraph 3 in order to illustrate which of the following points?

  The number of deer within the Puget Sound region has varied over time.

  Most of the explorers who came to the Puget Sound area were primarily interested in hunting game.

  There was more game for hunting in the East of the United States than in the West.

  Individual explorers were not as successful at locating games as were the trading companies.

  我们根据题干中的信息可以轻松定位到第四行,famous explorers,从中找到Lewis 和Clark。找到这句话之后,我们发现这句话和前面的内容或者后面的内容都没有明显的逻辑关系,那么这个时候我们该往哪里突破呢?

  通过阅读我们发现提到Lewis和Clark是在具体描述他们的经历,这实际上是一个具体的例子。这句话其实和我们的for example的内容是一样的,只是没有出现for example的词组而言。所以我们可以通过分析得出这句话其实是例子,是为了证明前面一句话提到的鹿群数量变化。所以可以确定答案确实是往前面一句话去寻找,轻松得出答案A。

  因此在日常阅读精读过程中,考生们除了要分析具体的、明显的逻辑点之外,还需要分析隐含的一些逻辑点。

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