托福听力不仅仅要把具体的单词听懂,句子听懂,更重要的是把单词听懂的同时句子和整篇文章都能够听懂。要想把这些内容都听懂就需要加快转化速度。下面就跟着小编来看一下托福听力TPO6分类之商业。

  TPO 6 Lecture 1 Economics

  Narrator

  Listen to part of a lecture in an economics class.

  Professor

  Now when I mention the terms “boom and bust”, what is that going to mind?

  Student

  The dotcom crash of the ‘90s.

  Professor

  Ok. The boom in the late 1990s when all those new Internet companies sprung

  up and then sold for huge amounts of money. Then the bust around

  2000…2001 when many of those same Internet companies went out of

  business.

  Of course, booms aren’t always followed by busts. We’ve certainly seen times

  when local economies expanded rapidly for a while and then went back to a

  normal pace of growth. But, there’s a type of rapid expansion, what might be

  called the hysterical or irrational boom that pretty much always leads to a bust.See, people often create and intensify a boom when they get carried away by

  some new industry that seems like it will make them lots of money fast. You’d

  think that by the 90s, people would have learned from the past. If they did, well,look at tulips.

  Student

  Tulips? You mean like the flower?

  Professor

  Exactly. For instance, do you have any idea where tulips are from? Originally I

  mean.

  Student

  Well, the Netherlands, right?

  Professor

  That’s what most people think, but no. They are not native to the Netherlands,

  or even Europe. Tulips actually hail from an area that Chinese call the Celestial

  Mountains in Central Asia. A very remote mountainous region.

  It was Turkish nomads who first discovered tulips and spread them slowly

  westward. Now, around the 16th century, Europeans were traveling to Istanbul

  and Turkey as merchants and diplomats. And the Turks often gave the

  Europeans tulip bulbs as gifts which they would carry home with them. For the

  Europeans, tulips were totally unheard of. Er…a great novelty. The first bulb to show up in the Netherlands, the merchant who received them roasted and ate

  them. He thought they were kind of onion.

  It turns out that the Netherlands was an ideal country for growing tulips. It had the right kind of sandy soil for one thing, but also, it was a wealthy nation with a growing economy, willing to spend lots of money on new exotic things. Plus, the Dutch had a history of gardening. Wealthy people would compete, spending enormous amounts of money to buy the rarest flowers for their

  gardens.

  Soon tulips were beginning to show up in different colors as growers tried to

  breed them specifically for colors which would make them even more valuable.

  But they were never completely sure what they would get. Some of the most

  priced tulips were white with purple stricks, or red with yellow stricks on the

  paddles, even a dark purple tulip that was very much priced. What happened

  then was a craze for these specialized tulips. We called that craze “tulip

  mania”.

  So, here we’ve got all the conditions for an irrational boom: a prospering

  economy, so more people had more disposable income-money to spend on

  luxuries, but they weren’t experienced at investing their new wealth. Then

  along comes a thrilling commodity. Sure the first specimens were just played

  right in tulips, but they could be bred into some extraordinary variations, like

  that dark purple tulip. And finally, you have an unregulated market place, no

  government constrains, where price could explode. And explode they did,

  starting in the 1630s. There was always much more demand for tulips than

  supply. Tulips didn’t bloom frequently like roses. Tulips bloomed once in the

  early spring. And that was it for the year. Eventually, specially-bred

  multi-colored tulips became so valuable, well, according to records, one tulip

  bulb was worth 24 tons of wheat, or thousand pounds of cheese. One

  particular tulip bulb was sold and exchanged for a small sheep. In other words,

  tulips were literally worth their weight in gold.

  As demand grew, people began selling promissory notes guaranteeing the

  future delivery of priced tulip bulbs. The buyers of these pieces of paper would

  resell the notes and mark up prices. These promissory notes kept changing

  hands from buyer to buyer until the tulip was ready for delivery. But it was all

  pure speculation because as I said, there was no way to know if the bulb was

  really going to produce the variety, the color that was promised. But that didn’t matter to the owner of the note. The owner only cared about having that piece of paper so it could be traded later at a profit. And people were borrowing, mortgaging their homes in many cases to obtain those bits of paper because they were sure they’d find an easy way to make money.

  So now, you’ve got all the ingredients for a huge bust. And bust it did, when

  one cold February morning in 1637, a group of bulb traders got together and

  discovered that suddenly there were no bidders. Nobody wanted to buy. Panic

  spread like wild fire and the tulip market collapsed totally.

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