在面对托福口语的时候，我们要知道，批改老师都是美国老师，所以我们必须要知道美国人说话的特点，那就是流畅顺滑，这也是托福口语的一个重要的评分标准之一。接下来我们就一起看一下托福口语考试重点笔记【28】。

Listening

Lecture: (what to listen)

Interesting enough, ha Self-fulfilling prophecies…sound like a sort of magic. Think about this: it first starts an expectation, which can be either higher or lower than the reality. However, after a psychological process called “self-suggestion”, the participants start to firmly believe in that expectation. Soon after that, it becomes true because it has been believed to be true.

There is an example of self-fulfilling prophecies, which I often show to my students: in the 1960s, a group of researchers in North America had conducted a series of experiments in order to test to what extent self-fulfilling prophecies could make a change to people’s lives. First, a group of kids were randomly selected from many different primary schools. Because the sample was from plenty of different areas and big enough, we could comfortably assume that this group of American kids were simply as normal as any other group of American kids. After that, the researchers sent this group of children to receive academic education in a training group. No educators involved in this program had any idea of what kind of kids they were going to teach. But, as part of the plan, the educators were all instructed carefully that these kids were the top students from all over the country and thus they should be educated as geniuses. Therefore, contrary to the normal education, encouragement and praise were widely applied to these students in the process of education.

Five years later, when the researchers went back to finish the follow-up survey, they were surprised to notice that most kids educated and encouraged as geniuses demonstrated hints of apparently higher

IQ than normal kids.

Sample notes

引言

1 个例子(实验 ) (when—who—where—what--how )

kids 北美 随机– edu. training grp. – top – 表扬鼓励— 5Ys IQ ↑

08. 1. 13 + 06.10.21

Listening:【教授举例】一个实验，一组随机挑选的学生被告知是精挑细选的优生。因此老师努力教学，以天才的特别方式对待，并且经常鼓励他们，于是学生表现突出， 5 年以后比正常受教育的孩子智商高出很多。

Question:

The professor takes one example to illustrate the phenomenon of self-fulfilling prophecies. Explain how this example is related to the reading passage.

Speaking

The reading passage explains a definition--- self-fulfilling prophecy in psychology. It states that people firmly believe in an expectation, act on that belief and eventually make it true.

In the lecture, the professor gives an example to further illustrate this. He describes that in

1960s a group of normal kids randomly selected from many different schools in North America.

Then these kids were sent to receive academic education in a training camp.

The educators were told that these kids were all top students from all over the country. So they educated the students as geniuses with praise and encouragement, which was quite different from the way students were treated in normal schools.

Surprisingly, these kids had a higher IQ than normal kids five years later.

By these means, the professor proves that self-fulfilling prophecy could make a change to people’s lives, which is related in the reading passage.

Ex. 2

Instructions

Scent Marketing

Stores commonly search for ways to entice shoppers to purchase more products when they visit.

One effective method that they have discovered is scent marketing. Sellers have discovered that shoppers often associate scents with certain memories or even feelings.

Studies have determined that, depending upon the scent, people can be made to feel comfortable, relaxed, tense, or many other feelings. Scents that evoke pleasant memories are particularly effective.

By ensuring that these scents are in various sections of their stores, owners can subconsciously encourage shoppers to purchase more products than they normally would.

Stores commonly search for ways to entice shoppers to purchase more products when they visit.

One effective method that they have discovered is scent marketing. Sellers have discovered that shoppers often associate scents with certain memories or even feelings.

Studies have determined that, depending upon the scent, people can be made to feel comfortable, relaxed, tense, or many other feelings. Scents that evoke pleasant memories are particularly effective.

By ensuring that these scents are in various sections of their stores, owners can subconsciously encourage shoppers to purchase more products than they normally would.

Sample notes:

scent marketing:

scent—memories/feelings

1)plea.—eff.

2)sct.—sect. sales↑

Listening

Lecture (what to listen)

You’ve all probably visited the local department store only to be besieged 困扰, by all of the different scents. Have you ever wondered why there are so many different scents Well, it’s called scent marketing, and it’s the concept that various scents actually encourage people to shop more.

There was a study conducted a while back about scents used in a department store. (1) One store scented its entire women’s clothing section with fragrances which were appealing to women. It also sprayed its men’s clothing section with aromas that men found to be pleasing.

Interestingly, it doubled the number of clothes that it sold. In a nutshell, both men and women, since they were attracted to those smells, associated that clothes with those fragrances and made more purchases than they normally would have.

There was also a survey about (2)running shoes that was conducted recently. I think you’ll find the results fascinating. Well, more often than not, people preferred for the running shoes they purchased to have some kind of fragrance.

Furthermore, they actually expected to pay more money---around $10 in most cases---for the shoes that smelled nicer. So not only do smells encourage people to spend more, but they also get people to pay more for the same products. Sample notes 引言：var.sct. --- shop more 例子： 2 个 1) clothing store: M W 2 倍 2) shoe store： pay more 10$