Conversation 1service design
1.Why does the student go to see the professor?
a.To find out all the requirements for a project
b.To discuss a service gap at a restaurant
c.To get help understanding concepts relevant to his project
d.To get help with designing a business plan
对应“So, here’s my question. I read something about service standard that kind of confused me. What’s the difference between service design and service standard?”可知汤姆是来询问课题中“service design”和“service standard”这两个概念的。
2.Why does the professor mention a student in another class?
a.To describe an interesting topic for a project
b.To explain the cause of her initial confusion
c.To point out that she has not received e-mails from all her students yet
d.To indicate that she has several students doing projects about restaurants
3.Why does the professor talk about the cafeteria on campus?
a.To give an example of an effective service design
b.To illustrate how service standards can inform service design
c.To help the man understand a service problem
d.To illustrate the concept of a service gap
老师在解释“surface design”时，提出了校园自助餐厅的例子，并且在此案例中“cash registers”的位置设定是完全合乎逻辑的，是一个正面教材、成功案例。
4.What do the speakers imply about the bakery the student went to recently? Click on 2 answers.
a.The apple pie he bought there was not as good as it usually is.
b.The bakery's service design was inefficient.
c.The bakery needs additional employees to fix a service gap.
d.The bakery did not meet a service standard.
5.What does the professor say the student should do for his project?
a.Compare an on-campus service model with an off-campus one
b.Interview the service manager and employees at the cafeteria
c.Recommend service improvements at the cafeteria and the bookstore
d.Analyze the service design of a nearby restaurant
老师最后提到“You should go to some other local establishments I’d say.”再联系汤姆在一开始对课题的回顾，可得知第四项为正确答案。前几个选项都没有提到过。
Lecture 1(Art History)
1. What point does the professor make about the writing of a formal analysis in art history?
a.Its objective is to identify common features of several works of art.
b.Its most important part is the explanation of an artwork's significance.
c.Several styles of writing a formal analysis are used by art historians.
d.A particular approach is required to present Information about an artwork.
全文主要在讲如何完成“your first paper”,分为“next step” “the next part of your paper” “in the last section of your paper”三部分。
2. According to the professor, what will students need to do before writing the art history paper?
a.Look at examples of formal analysis in textbooks
b.Take notes on the artwork they will write about
c.Go to different museums before selecting a topic for the paper
d.Study the historical context of the artwork they will write about
“ Carefully, slowly and keep careful notes about what you see.”老师强调了学生需要认真去看去感受，并且记录下来。
3. Why does the professor mention an English class?
a.To explain the difference between visual language and written language
b.To explain that students need good writing skills for their assignment
c.To point out similarities between a poetry paper and the students' assignment
d.To point out that many art historians become writers
“If you’ve, say written an analysis for a poem, you’ve used the same skills.” “A formal analysis paper in art history is very similar.”
4. What does the professor recommend as a way to understand the relationship between different parts of an artwork?
a.Looking for lines that connect different parts of the work
b.Examining the artwork from several different angles
c.Looking for similar colors the artist used throughout the work
d.Determining how the viewer's eyes move around the work
本题较简单，关注教授说的：“Then describe things in the order which your eye moves around the work. This will help you understand how one part relates to another, the interaction between the different parts of the work, okay?”
5. Why does the professor talk about his own experience analyzing the painting of a little boy?
a.To point out a common misconception about formal analysis
b.To stress the importance of looking at an artwork thoroughly
c.To show why a formal analysis should not emphasize small details
d.To provide an example of an artwork that is easy to analyze
6. The professor describes three sections the art history paper should contain. Place them in the order in which they should appear in the paper.
Click on a phrase. Then drag it to the space where it belongs.
a.Analysis of the design elements the artist uses
b.Discussion of the meaning of the artwork
c.Summary of the appearance of the artwork
第一步是“So your next step in this process needs to be to go look at the work”“ Carefully, slowly and keep careful notes about what you see”，也就是去看作品，感受它的外观。第二步是 “The next part of your paper, the actual formal analysis, will be the longest and most important section of your paper where you describe and analyze individual design elements” ，关键字 是“elements”。第三步是“In the last section of your paper, and this goes beyond formal analysis, you comment on the significance of what you see”，关键字为“significance”。
Lecture 2 (Environmental Conservation) 过度捕捞
1. What is the discussion mainly about?
a.Results of privatization in the cod-fishing industry
b.Laws that regulate the cod-fishing industry
c.A recent study on cod-fishing techniques
d.Problems related to the overfishing of cod
2. Why does the professor compare Cape Cod to Newfoundland?
a.To explain how some of Cape Cod’s waters first became privatized
b.To illustrate the enormous size of Cape Cod’s seventeenth-century cod population
c.To explain why large-scale cod fishing began later in Cape Cod than elsewhere
d.To highlight the results of two different evolutionary pressures on cod
提到了“newfoundland”,描述鳕鱼多到把桶放在水下就可以捞出满满一桶。然后说“But Cape Cod was even better”，正衬托出Cape Cod鳕鱼数量之多。
3. What change did scientists notice around Cape Cod after the 1940s?
a.The amount of pollutants dumped into the ocean increased dramatically.
b.Trawling ships violated fishing regulations more often.
c.The cod population's diet became less diverse.
d.Cod began to mature at a younger age.
文中提到“this competition was causing changes to the biology of the fish”，下文解释了“Changes to the biology of the fish”的意思就是成熟期提前。
4. What point does the professor make about reproduction among small cod fish as compared to larger cod fish?
a.Eggs produced by smaller cod are less likely to survive.
b.Smaller cod produce fewer eggs.
c.The offspring of smaller cod do not live as long
d.Smaller cod produce eggs fewer times per year
“And when you are a small cod reproducing, you produce fewer eggs than a large cod.”原文中直接提到了这个答案。
5. What is the professor's opinion of privatization for the management of an environmental resource?
a.Privatization is an imperfect tool.
b.Privatization should be tried more often.
c.Privatization usually results in political conflicts.
d.Privatization usually results in the best outcome.
老师评价这一方法“But the problem is privatization doesn’t necessarily result in better management of an environmental resource”，没有完全否定也没用完全肯定，持保留态度。第二项没有提到过;第三项只是文中一个例子，没有“usually”;第四项与老师的评价相反。
6. According to the professor, what was the result of the 200-mile exclusive economic zone declared by the United States and Canada?
a.The cod population moved further out to sea.
b.The cod population began to recover.
c.More trawlers began fishing around Cape Cod.
d.Penalties for overfishing were toughened.
本课中教授直接提到了，“ The total number of fishing trawlers actually increased.”
Conversation 2 推荐信
1. Why does the woman go to see the man?
a.To ask for his help in getting a job off campus
b.To apply for job in the library archives
c.To find out if the man has received her letter of reference
d.To get help on a project she is doing with a professor
“actually it’s for a photography job in the portrait studio at the mall.” “I went for an interview, but I still need to give them professional references from people I’ve worked for”。也就是说，女士为了得到商场里的一份工作，而需要男士的推荐信。
2. During the conversation, what surprises the man?
Click on 2 answers
a.That he does not remember the woman
b.That the woman knows the library has a job opening
c.That the woman came to him for help
d.That the woman is still interested in photography
关于第二项，女士来寻求工作上的帮助，男士误以为是那封新工作，所以惊奇她知道的如此之快。“Oh, the job here in the library archive? That was fast. We just posted it yesterday.” 关于第三项，当女士提出是校外的一份工作时，男士觉得自己并不能帮上忙，所以很惊奇。“But how can I help?”而第一项错误，男士明确表示自己还记得。第四项也不能选，对于这一点，男士并未表现出惊讶。
3. What does the man imply about Professor Ryan?
a.Professor Ryan will decide who gets the library assistant job.
b.Professor Ryan was in charge of the library’s photography exhibit.
c.Professor Ryan was impressed with work the woman did on the photography exhibit.
d.Professor Ryan recommended the woman for the library assistant job.
“We all thought we did a great job. I remember saying that to Professor Ryan and he thought so, too.”男士的话表明了Ryan教授对女士的工作也很肯定。并且认为已经拿到了教授的推荐，说明男士相信教授对女士的肯定。
4. What will be the main responsibility of the new library assistant?
a.Cataloging photographs taken during the university’s hundreth year
b.Planning and setting up photography exhibits at the library
c.Writing research reports about photographs in the library’s collection
d.Finding photographs requested by library users
原文提到“it does involve working with pictures, filling request for specific photos from students and professors”，师生也就是这校园图书馆的使用者，满足他们的图片需求，也就是帮助寻找图片。
5. What does the woman imply about the library assistant job?
Click on 2 answers.
a.She feels she is not qualified for it.
b.She is reluctant to apply for it because it does not involve taking photographs.
c.She thinks it would fit in well with her class schedule.
d.She thinks it would require too much of her time.
“Well, the hours are definitely better, but I really do want to find out about that job at the studio first.”因为工作时间都是在晚上，与上课不冲突。而女士更想去做那份与上课时间冲突的校外的工作，就是因为更想从事与摄影有关的工作，这是图书馆工作所不具备的。
Lecture 3(Environmental Science) 碳排放
1. What is the main purpose of the lecture?
a.To argue that carbon emissions today are not the only factor responsible for global warming
b.To provide evidence that rates of global carbon emissions fluctuate over time
c.To show the importance of distinguishing between different types of carbon emissions
d.To describe different ways carbon is removed from the atmosphere
文章主要讲述了3种碳排放：必要的生物排放，“biomass fuels”的燃烧和“fossil fuels”的燃烧。文章最后一段也总结了它们的区别及其优劣。
2.What aspects of outer space does the professor emphasize?
Click on 2 answers.
b.Its cold temperatures
c.The absence of life there
d.Its role as the ultimate source of energy on Earth
文中提到“without carbon and other greenhouse gases our planet would be the same temperature as outer space…there’s nothing going on at that temperature. No possibility of life of any sort”。显然教授强调的就是2点：低温以及低温导致生物无法生存。
3. According to the professor, how do the oceans remove carbon from the atmosphere?
Click on 2 answers.
a.By dissolving it
b.Through a process of condensation and precipitation
c.By storing the remains of marine animals
d.Through the regulation of air temperatures
文中直接提到了，“it dissolves in the oceans or gets stored deep in the ocean.”以及shellfish 这样的海生动物死后富含碳的尸体沉入海底。
4. Why does the professor mention mining?
a.To explain why the price of fossil fuels is continually rising
b.To explain how certain fuel sources can be recovered from the ocean floor
c.To explain why coal and oil are more difficult to obtain than natural gas
d.To explain why fossil fuels contribute to an excess of carbon in the atmosphere
“And this is carbon that was in the atmosphere million of years ago.”为了说明化石燃料的燃烧将百万年前的碳都排放到大气中，非正常的排放途径，打破了平衡。
5. What does the professor mean when he refers to biomass carbon as "current carbon"?
a.It is the fuel source most widely approved by environmentalists today.
b.It is part of a balanced system of carbon emission and absorption.
c.It is circulated throughout the oceans by the movement of ocean water.
d.It readily combines with other carbon molecules to produce long chains.
原文提到“It’s always going in and out of the atmosphere.”意味着biomass carbon本身就处于当下平衡的碳循环中，即碳的循环与吸收。
6. Why does the professor say this
a.To let students know that the term “greenhouse effect” will be tested
b.To indicate that the definition of “greenhouse effect” will be discussed
c.To suggest that his previous definition of “greenhouse effect” was imprecise
d.To acknowledge that there is controversy surrounding the use of the term “greenhouse effect”
[注：猜测是这句“Everyone knows what that is, right?”]
Lecture 4 (United States Government) 公共设施私有化
1. What issue does the professor mainly discuss?
a.Government purchases of private property to expand transportation routes
b.The rising cost of public transportation in the United States
c.The transfer of certain public assets to for-profit companies
d.Whether voters can be persuaded to approve toll increases
2. Why does the professor mention highway construction that took place during the 1950s and 1960s?
a.To point out changes in voter attitudes toward toll and tax increases
b.To suggest that mistakes were made when the highway system was built
c.To explain why traffic congestion is not as bad as it used to be
d.To make a point about the current need for infrastructure repairs
这里教授主要在讲出现公共设施私有化的原因就是高额的维修费，而这高额维修费产生的原因就是这些公共设施建立于“1950s and 1960s”，年代久远。教授指出建造时间就是为了指出这些公共设施使用年份已长(“but these facilities are getting old now”)，需要维修。
3. According to the professor, why do governments consider selling or leasing pieces of infrastructure?
Click on 2 answers.
a.Governments often have difficulty balancing their general budgets.
b.The money that governments receive from user fees has gone down in recent years
c.Political considerations limit governments’ ability to raise money for maintenance.
d.Private companies are better able to estimate the cost of infrastructure repairs.
教授提到过“And they can use money they get from selling or leasing a piece of infrastructure to balance their budgets”、“Merely proposing increases can damage political careers”以及“Since they’re not government entities, private companies face less political resistance, say to raising tolls in order to provide that better service”，分别对应第一、三两个选项。
4. What does the professor imply about some people s concerns over privatizing parts of an infrastructure?
a.Their concerns are likely to diminish in the future.
b.Their concerns are completely justified.
c.Their concerns suggest that voters need better information.
d.Their concerns have mostly been disregarded by governments.
5. What does the professor imply about secondary roads?
a.Their availability tends to limit toll increases on major highways.
b.They can be more expensive to repair than major highways are.
c.Increasing numbers of them are becoming toll roads.
d.Commuters are attracted to them for their scenic qualities.
教授在讲述“secondary roads”是最后总结“So market forces do play a role in keeping private companies from raising their tolls too much.”就是在说明“第二条路”的存在使得“第一条路”迫于市场压力而不会涨价离谱。
6. According to the professor, what is likely to happen when a bridge provides steady revenue for a private company?
a.The bridge will be well maintained in the long term.
b.The company will not raise tolls.
c.Other companies will be interested in buying the bridge.
d.Voters will pressure the government to buy back the bridge.
原文中提到“if the company decides it wants to sell the bridge to another company, say ten years from now, it will have no problem finding a buyer.”这句话就是说因为有固定的长期收入使得公司很容易找到买家，也正说明了其他公司对他有兴趣所以成为新卖家。