literature 主 要 讲 了 18-19 世 纪 英 国 浪 漫 主 义(Romanticism)诗歌的代表人 Wardsworth 的诗。他是浪 漫主义的鼻祖，但浪漫主义这个称谓是后人加上的，不是他们本身这样称呼自己的(此处出题)。Romanticism 不是我们平时理解的 romance，和男女之间的爱情无关。Romanticism 针对 的 是 common people 而不 是 少数educated people，用的是 simple language，描述的是日常生活中常见的事物，孩子，人类情感，以及自然和人类之间的互动。教授以自己为例，说自己在散步时感受到了这种互动(此处出题)与 romanticism 针锋相对的一种 风 格 是 neoclassicism 新 古 典 主 义 ， 也 是 那 位romanticism 的鼻祖很反对的。neoclassicism 使用太多的elaboration，如 sky 不叫 sky，而叫 blue 什么的;bird 不叫 bird，而叫 feathered person。教授把该诗人的作品分为三个阶段。早期的浪漫主义作品，主要描述植物的(花与草)诗歌。中期时是对一些社会现象的评论。后期时对早期的作品进行修改。目前文学界还是认为它早期的作品是最好的。(教授还说，他的诗越写到后来越糟糕，反而早期的比较好，本文重点讲了第一阶段的诗)。
2 、重听题，是对古典主义诗的描述，说他们把 bird 说成 fly people，大概是表现古典主义诗的特征。
5 、重听题，大意是说教授认为作者第一阶段的早期作品比较好，但是在课上不对以后的作品作评价，暗示 了什么?本文重点讲了他第一阶段的诗WORDSWORTH 背景知识补充：WORDSWORTH] Wordsworth, William (1770-1850), is considered by many
scholars to be the most important English Romantic poet. In 1795, Wordsworth met Samuel Taylor Coleridge. The two men collaborated on Lyrical Ballads (1798), a collection of poems frequently regarded as the symbolic beginning of the English Romantic movement. ] Wordsworth argued that serious poems could describe "situations from common life" and be written in the ordinary language "really used by men." He believed such poems could clarify "the primary laws of our nature." Wordsworth also insisted that poetry is "emotion recollected in tranquility." ] He explained that his poetry used everyday language rather than the elevated poetic language of such earlier writers as Dryden and Pope because everyday language comes closer to expressing genuine human feeling. For the same reason, he wanted to write a bout everyday topics, especially rural, unsophisticated subjects. ] Wordsworth and Coleridge lived most of their lives in the scenic Lake District of northwestern England and wrote expressively about the beauties of nature and the thoughts that natural beauty inspires. Many of their blank verse poems are written in a meditative, conversational tone new to English poetry.
Romanticism is a style in the fine arts and literature. It emphasizes passion rather than reason, and imagination and intuition rather than logic. Romanticism favors full expression of the emotions, and free, spontaneous action rather than restraint and order.
Romanticism can be seen as a rejection of the precepts of order, calm, harmony, balance, idealization, and rationality that typified Classicism in general and late 18th-century Neoclassicism in particular.
It was also to some extent a reaction against the Enlightenment and against 18th-century rationalism and physical materialism in general. Romanticism emphasized the individual, the subjective, the irrational, the imaginative,the personal, the spontaneous , the emotional, the visionary, and the transcendental.
Romanticism in literature. During the Romantic movement, most writers were discontented with their world. It seemed commercial, inhuman, and standardized. To escape frommodern life, the Romantics turned their interest to remoteand faraway places, the medieval past, folklore and legends,and nature and the common people. The Romantics were also drawn to the supernatural.