托福阅读语法知识科普之非谓语动词!有很多考生认为我只要理解文章的内容就能正确的进行答题了,其实托福阅读考察大家的阅读能力,但是在答题的时候还考察大家的综合处理能力,所以语法知识还是有必要进行学习的。

  一、现分与过分的区别

  现分过分考与不考备注

  主动被动90%(后置定语,状)

  进行完成10%(前置定语)

托福阅读语法知识科普之非谓语动词

  动作状态不考

  ┏ a retired general

  ┗ a retirign general 错

  ┏ a fallen fruit 在地下

  ┗ a falling fruit正在掉

  二、现在分词与过去分词的用法

  1. 用于名词后作后置定语,等同于定语从句,只考虑主被动

  Indians who lived in

  ~~~~~~~~~~~~=living

  分词=从句

  2. 用于句首,句末作状语,只考虑主被动

  非此即彼 ┏included in/by

  ┗including 分,prep

  ┏involved in

  ┗involving

  3. 常考的接doing的词

  enjoy , finish, celebrate, suggest, advocate, forgive,

  mind, avoid, escape, tolerate, delay, quit

  spend ... (in) doing

  have difficulty/trouble/a problem/a hard time (in) doing

  三、动词不定式的省略用法

  1. ┏help to do = help do 可省可不省

  ┗help sb to do = help sb do

  2. 使役动词必省to

  let sb do ; make sb do; have sb do ; bid sb do

  have sth done

  3. 关于感观动词

  see, hear, notice, feel, watch

  必须省to

  ┏see sb do 看见整个过程

  ┗see sb doing看见动作正在进行

  改被动后to 要加回来

  ┏be seen to do

  ┗be seen doing

  四、动词不定式的固定用法

  1. 第一“人”

  the first (sb) to do

  2. 表“迫使”的动词

  allow sb to do allow sth

  permit sb to do permit sth

  enable sb to do enable sth

  cause sb to do cause sth

  force sb to do force sth

  3. 表“倾向”的adj./V

  tend to do

  attemp to do

  be (more) likely to do

  that + 句子

  be inclined to do

  be apt to do

  be liable to do

  4. 表“目的”的名词

  The function + of sth. + is to do sth.

  function, goal, purpose, aim, objective, reason, intention

  5.与接不定式的V或adj. 同词根的名词也接不定式

  be able to do -> ability to do

  enable sb to do

  decide to do -> decision to do

  be ambitious to do -> ambition to do

  try to do -> make great efforts to do

  attempt(v.) to do -> attempt(n.) to do

  五、动词不定式的其它形式

  1. 动词不定式的将来式

  主动:be to do

  被动:be to be done

  表示预计要发生或按计划要发生的事情

  China is to be one of the most important contries in the world.

  被动式与过去分词的区别

  the surfaces to be glued

  the surfaces glued

  2. 动词不定式的完成时

  主动to have done

  被动to have been done

  表示不定式的动作发生在谓语之前

  I’m glad to have seen your son yesterday.

  3. 某些adj. 后主动表被动

  This plas is difficult to come out

  easy

  hard

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