【1】In Europe, before the introduction of the mechanical clock, people told time by sun(using, for example, shadow sticks or sun dials) and water clocks. Sun clocks worked, ofcourse, only on clear days; water clocks misbehaved when the temperature fell towardfreezing, to say nothing of long-run drift as the result of sedimentation and clogging. Boththese devices worked well in sunny climates; but in northern Europe the sun may be hidden byclouds for weeks at a time, while temperatures vary not only seasonally but from day to night.
【2】Medieval Europe gave new importance to reliable time. The Catholic Church had its sevendaily prayers, one of which was at night, requiring an alarm arrangement to waken monksbefore dawn. And then the new cities and towns, squeezed by their walls, had to know andorder time in order to organize collective activity and ration space. They set a time to go tosleep. All this was compatible with older devices so long as there was only one authoritativetimekeeper; but with urban growth and the multiplication of time signals, discrepancy broughtdiscord and strife. Society needed a more dependable instrument of time measurement andfound it in the mechanical clock.
【3】We do not know who invented this machine, or where. It seems to have appeared in Italyand England (perhaps simultaneous invention) between 1275 and 1300. Once known, itspread rapidly, driving out water clocks but not solar dials, which were needed to check thenew machines against the timekeeper of last resort. These early versions were rudimentary,inaccurate, and prone to breakdown.
【4】Ironically, the new machine tended to undermine Catholic Church authority. Althoughchurch ritual had sustained an interest in timekeeping throughout the centuries of urbancollapse that followed the fall of Rome, church time was nature’s time. Day and night weredivided into the same number of parts, so that except at the equinoxes, days and night hourswere unequal; and then of course the length of these hours varied with the seasons. But themechanical clock kept equal hours, and this implied a new time reckoning. The Catholic Churchresisted, not coming over to the new hours for about a century. From the start, however, thetowns and cities took equal hours as their standard, and the public clocks installed in town hallsand market squares became the very symbol of a new, secular municipal authority. Everytown wanted one; conquerors seized them as especially precious spoils of war; tourists cameto see and hear these machines the way they made pilgrimages to sacred relics.
1.Why does the author provide the information that "in northern Europe the sun maybe hidden by clouds for weeks at a time, while temperatures vary not only seasonallybut from day to night"?
A.To emphasize the variety of environments in which people used sun and water clocks to telltime.
B.To illustrate the disadvantage of sun and water clocks.
C.To provide an example of an area where water clocks have an advantage over sun clocks.
D.To counter the claim that sun and water clocks were used all over Europe.
2.According to paragraph 2, all of the following are examples of the importance oftimekeeping to medieval European society EXCEPT
A.the need of different towns to coordinate timekeeping with each other.
B.the setting of specific times for the opening and closing of markets.
C.the setting of specific time for the start and finish of the working day.
D.the regulation of the performance of daily church rituals.
3.According to paragraph 2, why did the medieval church need an alarm arrangement?
A.The alarm warned the monks of discord or strife in the town.
B.The church was responsible for regulating working hours and market hours.
C.The alarm was needed in case fires were not put out each night.
D.One of the church's daily rituals occurred during the night.
4.The word "authoritative" in the passage(paragraph 2)is closest in meaning to
5.The author uses the phrase "the timekeeper of last resort" to refer to
6.The word "rudimentary" in the passage(paragraph 3)is closest in meaning to
7.According to paragraph 4, how did the Catholic Church react to the introduction ofmechanical clocks?
A.Its used mechanical clocks through the period of urban collapse.
B.It used clocks to better understand natural phenomena, like equinoxes.
C.It tried to preserve its own method of keeping time, which was different from mechanical-clock time.
D.It used mechanical clocks to challenge secular, town authorities.
8.The word "installed" in the passage(paragraph 4)is closest in meaning to
B.expected by the majority of people.
D.put in place.
9.It can be inferred from paragraph 5 that medieval clockmakers
A.were able to continually make improvements in the accuracy of mechanical clocks.
B.were sometimes not well respected by other engineers.
C.sometimes made claims about the accuracy of mechanical clocks that were not true.
D.rarely shared their expertise with other engineers.
10.Paragraph 5 answers which of the following questions about mechanical clocks.
A.How did early mechanical clocks work?
B.Why did the design of mechanical clocks affect engineering in general?
C.How were mechanical clocks made?
D.What influenced the design of the first mechanical clock?
11.The word "pioneers" in the passage isclosest in meaning to
2.虽然原文提到说城与城之间要保持一直，但其目的是organize collective activity，和ration space。 而collective activity对应了选项B，C对应set time to go to sleep,也就是结束工作的时间。D对应开头catholic church的prayers活动。
3.对应原文的第二句话，可根据alarm arrangement定位，前文说one of which was at night，后面说towaken monk before dawn，这两个都可以算是原因，选项中符合的只有D。
4.authoritative是权威的，A是真实的，B是重要的，C是官方的，D是有效的。因此C是正确的。文章中也说only one怎样的time keeper，所以应该是官方准确时间。
5.前文说需要它去check 这个machines，which前面说的是solar dials所以指的是the sun。
7.可定位至相关段落，关键词为resisted，not coming over，所以证明church在拒绝新的计时方法，也就是在试着保护自己的方法。
12.定位到原文最后一句，说使人们从task-oriented和 time-filling busyness的模式变为maximizeproduct per unit of time，从而提高了productivity，所以选择D。A，B原文都提到了，但是是转化前的状态，C没提到。
13.原句中no longer反应宗教仪式了，那么此句前后应该有对现在的计时制度的描写，另外句末提到了religious ritual，所以附近也应该有对宗教组织的态度描写，满足这两个条件的位置是C。
14.A对应第二段倒数第一句和倒数第二句后半句"with urban growth and the multiplication of timesignals, discrepancy brought discord and strife. Society needed a more dependableinstrument of time measurement and found it in the mechanical clock."正确。B与原文第一段矛盾。不选。C原文并没有提到说有大量的timekeepers，而第三段还说只能有一个权威的timekeeper不选。D对应原文第三段，说应用mechanical clock之后water clock很快被弃用了，但sun clock依然留下用来对照mechanical clock的准确性，错，不选。