托福综合写作阅读材料:

  In the United States, employees typicallywork five days a week for eight hours each day. However, many employees want towork a four-day week and are willing to accept less pay in order to do so. Amandatory policy requiring companies to offer their employees the option of workinga four-day workweek for four-fifths (80 percent) of their normal pay wouldbenefit the economy as a whole as well as the individual companies and the employeeswho decided to take the option.

  在美国,职员一般执行的一周五天,每天八小时工作制。然而,很多职员希望能够改为四天工作制,如果能够满足需要可以接受薪水降低。要求企业提供薪水八成工作四天的工作方式供员工选择对于国家整个经济都是有好处的,同时获益的还有个人,以及执行这个政策的公司。

  The shortened workweek would increasecompany profits because employees would feel more rested and alert, and as aresult, they would make fewer costly errors in their work. Hiring more staff toensure that the same amount of work would be accomplished would not result inadditional payroll costs because four-day employees would only be paid 80percent of the normal rate. In the end, companies would have fewer overworkedand error-prone employees for the same money, which would increase companyprofits.

  减少工作日会提高公司的利润,因为员工们会感到很轻松和精神,这样他们就会在工作中较少犯那些可能会带来损失的错误。为了完成同样的工作量将需要雇佣更多的人手,但是这不意味着需要支付更多的薪水,这是因为四天工作日只需支付给每个员工80%的工资。这样,公司花同样的钱,员工这会过于劳累和失误连连了,这样将会提高公司的利润。

  For the country as a whole, one of theprimary benefits of offering this option to employees is that it would reduceunemployment rates. If many full-time employees started working fewer hours, someof their workload would have to be shifted to others. Thus, for every fouremployees who went on an 80 percent week, a new employee could be hired at the80 percent rate.

  对于国家整体来说,给职员提供这样的选择选择的好处就是可以降低失业率。如果原来全职工作的人缩短了工作时间之后,他们的部分工作就需要转给其他的员工。这样,如果每个员工每周都只工作80%的时间,这样就可以以同样的工作时间来雇佣新员工了。

  Finally, the option of a four-day workweekwould be better for individual employees. Employees who could afford a lowersalary in exchange for more free time could improve the quality of their livesby spending the extra time with their families, pursuing private interests, orenjoying leisure activities.

  最后,这种四天工作日的选择对于员工个人来说也是有利的。那些可以接受用降低薪水来增加休息时间的员工可以提高他们的生活质量,因为他们有更多的时间陪家人、追求自己的兴趣、以及享受一些休闲生活。

  托福综合写作阅读部分需要提取的观点是:

  - Main point: A mandatory policy requiringcompanies to offer their employees the option of working a four-day workweekfor four-fifths (80 percent) of their normal pay would benefit the economy as awhole as well as the individual companies and the employees who decided to takethe option.

  - Sub point 1: The shortened workweek wouldincrease company profits.

  - Sub point 2: the country as a whole willbenefits.

  - Sub point 3: the option of a four-dayworkweek would be better for individual employees.#p#副标题#e#

  托福综合写作阅读观点抽出方法:

  - 这篇文章没有在观点抽取的时候为我们设置障碍,Main point就乖乖地出现在首段段尾,

  sub points都是在段首出现的。但是需要提醒的是千万不要把support和detail作为point提取出来。在独立写作的时候,大家常犯的一个错误就是把support和detail作为point放在段首,在阅读部分也还是难以压抑对support和detail的重视。在提取point的时候不要把细节搅和进来。比如就不能说第一个sub point是员工效率更高;第二个sub point是可以降低失业率,第三个sub point是可以提高生活质量。如果用细节当point,就会在听力部分发现点对点对不上了,因为不是所有题目都是会反驳阅读部分的细节的。即便是,你貌似对上了,但是逻辑层面不对还是错的。所以,真正的理解point的含义是非常重要的,point的是观点,不提炼出来的态度,而不应该是一些起支撑作用的细节。

  - 我们自查sub point的方法就是它是否是支持mainpoint。有的时候sub point是main point 的一部分,这段就是一个典型,有的时候sub point从不同方面支持main point。但是如果抓到的是细节,那么就没有这样直接的逻辑关系,则不可用。这样的视角也可以用在独立写作的自查上,看看自己找的sub point到底对不对。

  在听力部分,我们可以预测到的就是这个四天工作制是没有哪个方面可以从中获益的,在听的时候我们一定要注意那些表原因的词汇,这样我们才能找到重点。

  Offering employees the option of a four-dayworkweek won’t affect the company profits, economic conditions or the lives ofemployees in the ways the reading suggests.

  给雇员提供四天工作日的选择不会像阅读部分上所说的对企业、经济状况和雇员个人的生活带来积极的影响的。

  First, offering a four-day workweek willprobably force companies to spend more, possibly a lot more. Adding new workersmeans putting much more money into providing training and medical benefits.Remember the costs of things like health benefits can be the same whether anemployee works four days or five. And having more employees also requires moreoffice space and more computers. These additional costs would quickly cut intocompany profits.

  首先,采用四小时工作制可能会对导致企业支出增加,甚至大幅增加。增加新的员工以为这要再员工培训和医疗保险上花费更多的钱。别忘了,无论是四天工作制还是五天工作制,每个人在诸如保健福利金方面的花费是一样的。而新增的员工统一也需要更多的工位和更多的电脑。这些额外的支出很快就会影响到公司的利润。

  Second, with respect to overall employment,it doesn’t follow that once some employees choose a four-day workweek, manymore jobs will become available. Hiring new workers is costly, as I argued amoment ago. And companies have other options. They might just choose to asktheir employees to work overtime to make up the difference. Worse, companiesmight raise expectations. They might start to expect that their four-dayemployees can do the same amount of work they used to do in five days. If thishappens, then no additional jobs will be created and current jobs will becomemore unpleasant.

  第二,至于整个社会的就业问题,也不是像阅读部分所说的,只要有雇员选择四天工作制,就会创造更多的就业机会。鉴于我刚才说的,雇佣新员工花费颇多,很多公司都另作选择了。他们可能就是要求他们的员工加班已完成任务差额。甚至公司可能会提高它们对员工效率的预期。它们可能会要求改成四天工作制的员工完成过去他们五天完成的任务。如果这样,不但没有新的工作机会,而且现有的工作也变得不那么令人愉快了。

  Finally, while a four-day workweek offersemployees more free time to invest in their personal lives, it also presentssome risks that could end up reducing their quality of life. Working a shorter weekcan decrease employees’ job stability and harm their chances for advancingtheir careers. Four-day employees are likely to be the first to lose their jobsduring an economic downturn. They may also be passed over for promotionsbecause companies might prefer to have five-day

  employees in management positions to ensurecontinuous coverage and consistent supervision for the entire workweek.

  最后,虽然四天工作日给员工更多的空闲时间去安排他们的私人生活,但是他们也会冒有一定风险,这些风险甚至可能会降低他们的生活质量。时间较短的工作制将会降低雇员工作的稳定性,同时阻碍他们事业的发展。在面临经济危机的时候,选择四天工作制的员工将会首当其冲地被裁掉。同时由于公司更倾向于把管理岗给那些五天工作的员工,这样四天工作制的员工将会错失进行集会。企业正阳的考虑是为了保证在整个工作周期中都有持续的管理覆盖和持续的监督机制。

  托福综合写作阅读词汇补充:(欢迎补充)

  阅读部分表达方法:passage, material

  听力部分表达方法:lecture, the professors says

  同意: say, argue, claim, opinion, hold the view that, figure, deem,believe, reckon, consider, opinion, proposition,

  反对:on contrary, by contrast, argue against, refute, object, hold atotally different view, oppose, be against.

  TIP:在行文过程中,需要变化的是表示同意或者反对的功能性词汇,而表示阅读部分和听力部分的指代型词汇请不要变化。就像你跟人介绍我,不能在整个过程中说沐浴、沐沐、达芙妮、muyuruc,这样会让听者或者读者摸不到头绪的,我们语言多样性的表达要用在需要的地方。

  托福综合写作阅读文章结构:

  第一段:要表达的内容有:passage部分的主观点,lecture 部分的主观点,以及两者之间的关系。

  第二段:passage部分的sub point 1,lecture部分对应的sub point,lecture里面相对应的support和details。

  第三段:passage部分的sub point 2,lecture部分对应的sub point,lecture里面相对应的support和details。

  第四段:passage部分的sub point 3,lecture部分对应的sub point,lecture里面相对应的support和details。

  TIP:没有必要在文章中出现passage部分的support和details,或者说不能出现。

  托福综合写作范文(仅供参考):

  The passage argues that four-day work weekwill benefit companies, the whole economy, and individuals. But in the lecture,the professor holds a totally different view that no one will be beneficialfrom the new work week.

  Firstly, the passage says that companieswill get more profits for employees can work more effectively. However, thelecture points out that four-day workweek will lead to spend more. That isbecause companies have to spend more money on training, medical benefits,office positions, even new computers.

  Secondly, the passage claims that the wholeeconomy will benefit, for the four-day workweek is a way to reduce unemploymentrates. The lecture refutes the idea completely. Admittedly, there are moreavailable jobs, but companies will prefer to let employees work overtime tofinish them for hiring new staff is too expensive. In addition, the companiesmay lift their expectation that staff finish five-day jobs within four-day.

  Thirdly, the passage suggests thatindividual employees can benefit from it. Though the four-day workweek canprovide more leisure time to employees, the lecture argues against the passage.

  Comparing to five-day workers, the four-dayworkweek employees may be the first one to be fire during economic depression.And they will have less chance to promotion because companies wish thatmanagers could be on duty every work day.

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