Ethanol fuel, made from plants such as cornand sugar cane, has been advocated by some people as an alternative to gasolinein the United States. However, many critics argue that ethanol is not a goodreplacement for gasoline for several reasons.
First, the increased use of ethanol fuelwould not help to solve one of the biggest environmental problems caused bygasoline use: global warming. Like gasoline, ethanol releases carbon dioxide intothe atmosphere when it is burned for fuel, and carbon dioxide is a greenhousegas: it helps trap heat in the atmosphere. Thus, ethanol offers noenvironmental advantage over gasoline.
Second, the production of significantamounts of ethanol would dramatically reduce the amount of plants available foruses other than fuel. For example, much of the corn now grown in the United Statesis used to feed farm animals such as cows and chickens. It is estimated that ifethanol were used to satisfy just 10 percent of the fuel needs in the UnitedStates, more than 60 percent of the corn currently grown in the United Stateswould have to be used to produce ethanol. If most of the corn were used toproduce ethanol, a substantial source of food for animals would disappear.
Third, ethanol fuel will never be able tocompete with gasoline on price. Although the prices of ethanol and gasoline forthe consumer are currentlyabout the same, this is only because of the help inthe form of tax subsidies given to ethanol producers by the United Statesgovernment. These tax subsidies have cost the United States government over $11billion in the past 30 years. If the United States government were to stophelping the producers in this way, the price of ethanol would increase greatly.
- Main point: 乙醇燃料无法替代汽油
- Sub point 1: 燃烧乙醇燃料会排放二氧化碳，造成全球变暖
- Sub point 2: 制造乙醇燃料导致畜牧业缺乏饲料
- Sub point 3: 乙醇价格过高，依赖政府补贴#p#副标题#e#
Ethanol actually is a good alternative togasoline although you just read three reasons why it is not a good alternative.Not one of these three reasons is convincing.
First, the increased use of ethanol willnot add to global warming. It is true that when ethanol is burned, it releasescarbon dioxide into the atmosphere. But as you read, ethanol was often made fromplants such as corn. Well, the process of growing the plants counteracts thisrelease of carbon dioxide. Let me explain. Every growing plant absorbs carbondioxide from the air as a part of its nutrition. So, growing plants for ethanolproduction actually removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
Second, large scale production of ethanoldoes not have to reduce the source of food for animals. That is because we canproduce ethanol using cellulose. Cellulose is the main component of plants’cell walls, and you find most cellulose in those parts of plants that are noteaten by animals. So, since we can produce ethanol from the plant parts thatare not eaten, the amount of animals feed that is available will not bereduced.
Third, in the future, ethanol will be ableto compete with gasoline in term of price. It is true that the governmentsubsidies make up ethanol is cheaper than it would normally be, but thissupport would not always be needed. Once enough people start buying ethanol,ethanol producers will increase their production of ethanol. Generally,increased production of a product leads to a drop in its price, so the price ofethanol will go down as more of it becomes available. Study shows that ifethanol production could be three times greater than it is now, the cost ofproducing a unit of ethanol would drop by forty percent.
Main point: 三个理由都没有说服力
Sub point one: 乙醇燃料虽然会产生二氧化碳，但是制造乙醇燃料的作物在生长的过程中会吸收二氧化碳
Sub point two: 生产乙醇燃料使用的是动物不食用的部分，不会影响动物的饲料供应
Sub point three: 乙醇燃料的价格会在使用量增大后下降
The professor in the lecture definitelybelieves that ethanol is a good alternative of the gasoline. His view point isdefinitely opposite to the statements made in the reading passage. Actually, hefinds the statements made by the reading passage unconvincing.
On one hand, the professor points out thatburning ethanol will not add to global warming as the statement mentioned inthe reading passage. Although burning ethanol will release carbon dioxide intothe atmosphere, the growing process will counteract the effort by absorbingcarbon dioxide in the air. Therefore, the professor finds the first statementin the reading passage unconvincing.
On the other hand, the professor indicatesthat producing ethanol will not reduce the amount of food for animals. In fact,the professor says we can produce ethanol by using cellule, which will not beeaten by animals. Therefore, the amount of plants for other use will notdecrease as the reading passage mentions.
What’s more, the professor counters thatethanol will compete with gasoline in terms of price. The professor indicatesthat the continuing support for ethanol will make the production of ethanol increase,and thus the price of ethanol will decrease in the future. Under thiscircumstance, the third statement made by the reading passage is unconvincing.