托福综合写作阅读材料:

  In many organizations, perhaps the best wayto approach certain new projects is to assemble a group of people into a team.Having a team of people attack a project offers several advantages. 在很多机构里,恰当完成一个新项目的最好方法可能是把一组人组织成一个团队。一个团队来完成一个项目有几个优势。

  First of all, a group of people has a widerrange of knowledge, expertise, and skills than any single individual is likelyto possess. Also, because of the numbers of people involved and the greater resourcesthey possess, a group can work more quickly in response to the task assigned toit and can come up with highly creative solutions to problems and issues.

  首先,一组人员意味着有比任何一个个体拥有更为广泛的知识、技能以及技巧。同时,因为有更多数量人员的介入和更多资源的占有,团队工作可以以更快的速度对任务作出反应。同时,也能创造性地解决遇到的问题和争议。

  Sometimes these creative solutions comeabout because a group is more likely to make risky decisions that an individualmight not undertake. This is because the group spreads responsibility for adecision to all the members and thus no single individual can be heldaccountable if the decision turns out to be wrong.

  由于在团队工作中个体无需承担风险,所以会倾向于作出冒险的决定。这就导致了团队工作有时候可以创造性地解决问题。这是因为团队把团队决策的责任分摊给所有的成员了,这样的话,即使决策最后证明是错的,也不会有任何个体需要对此负责。

  Taking part in a group process can be veryrewarding for members of the team. Team members who have a voice in making adecision will no doubt feel better about carrying out the work that is entailedby the decision than they might doing work that is imposed on them by others.Also, the individual team member has a much better chance to “shine”, to gethis or her contributions and ideas not only recognized but recognized as highlysignificant, becausea team’s overall results can be more far-reaching and havegreater impact than what might have otherwise been possible for the person toaccomplish or contribute working alone.

  加入一个团队对于个体成员来说是一个非常荣耀的。对于那些能够影响决策的成员来说,毫无疑问,他们在团队行为中得来的决策快感要优于他们被动地接受别人指派任务时候的感受。同时,团队中的个人有更多“闪耀”的机会,这些机会的实现是由于他们对团队的贡献不但被认可,而且是高度低认可。这种高度的认可是因为团队的成就和影响力是要要高于个体。团队可以实现个体所不完成的任务,达到个体所不能达到的高度。#p#副标题#e#

  托福综合写作阅读部分需要提取的观点是:

  -Main point: perhaps the best way to approach certain new projects is toassemble a group of people into a team.

  -Sub point 1: A group can work more quickly in response to the taskassigned to it

  -Sub point 2: Sometimes these creative solutions come about.

  -Sub point 3: Taking part in a group process can be very rewarding formembers of the team.

  托福综合写作阅读观点抽出方法:

  -Main point: 主观点抽取的时候,有些同学喜欢凭感觉。可是如果感觉可靠的话,就没有那么多人失恋了。感觉是靠不住的,我们要找到根据。这篇文章的主观点算是比较好找的。阅读部分从题材上是essay,这个跟我们独立写作的作文是一致的。对于独立写作我们对开头段的要求是什么呢?那就是一个简短的drawer加上一个清晰的main point。同时如果时间不允许,那么开头直接说观点也是可以的,这篇文章呢,就是开门见山的说出了观点:perhaps the best way to approach certain new projects is to assemblea group of people into a team。而后面的一句话是过渡句,是预告下文的。也就是说,我将在团队工作的优势方面来支持我的主观点。我们在独立写作的时候,也可以把sub point整理之后提前到开头段,因为开头段存在的目的是:what I will talk about。

  -Sub point 1: 简单的main point找到之后,大家就在第一个sub point上面折戟了,华丽丽地选择了开头句。是呀,我们都说TS前置的呀!!!但是这是考题呀,就是考我们怎么抽出观点的。同时,经过这个也可以看出来,不把TS前置是多么讨厌的事情呀。我们写文章一个要不能用废话去烦考官,另一个是不能去考考官,因为我们是弱势群体。那么,这个sub point是怎么找出来的呢?显然不是凭感觉的。我们先厘清一下一个概念,就是一段里面sub point和下面的support内容是什么关系呢?唉,是解释的关系。Support是解释sub point的,是支持sub point的。因此,所有表原因的部分,都不会是point,而会是support和details。因此“becauseof the numbers of people involved and the greater resourcesthey possess”这句就华丽丽的不会是观点。而跟着它的那个主句,这很有可能是观点,但目前还不能这么草率的确定。我们沿着这个句子往前看,有个词是“also”。这个词,直译过来就是“也”。如果这样一句话:“ , 我也没吃饭,所以我们要一起去吃饭”,那么横线上的内容一定是“我也没吃饭”相平行的,要么张三,要么李四,共同组成“我们去吃饭”的原因。所以also之前的内容也是原因,而不是结果,那么就不会是观点。好了,先说到这里,接着说第二个sub point,然后回过头来这这一段结尾的那个句子。

  -Sub point 2: 这个TS就好找多了,开头第一句嘛。但是这样就可以了吗?显然不行,我们这样的判断方法是没有普适性的,下一次不放在第一句怎么办?好吧,我们找一个很伟大的词:because。这是一个原因状语从句,在主从复合句中,如果从句放在后半部分,那么就不需要用逗号隔开,这就让我们这个because不那么明显,但是,如果我们每次看综合写作的时候都先把because念一遍,就找到了。紧接着的这句就更和谐了,“This is because”开头了。那么这句也是表原因啦。里面有个词,thus可能会给大家带来一些困扰:这不是因此吗?这不是于是吗?但是在thus前面还有一个神一样的词,是and,好吧,这and表示的时候前后的东东是并列的,所以能,前后都是表原因的。这个thus的存在表示后面这个原因,其实是and前面的这个原因衍生出来的,然后共同充当sub point的原因。好了,这一段就只剩下第一句话的主句了,就是creative solution了。这时候,我们再回过头看第一段的最后一句,好像也提到了creative solution了,但同时也看到了and。And前后的东西是并列的,那么creative solution是一个sub point,则and前面的句子也是sub point的,验证了我们前边的推论。至于这里提到的creative solution是对下面的预告。我们总是就接用linking word是用fist好还是first and foremost好,但是很多时候,地道的表达会用句子来做linking。

  -Sub point 3: 这段的观点也是出现在了开头,rewarding。好了,我们再也不要用感觉去判断了。我们找到一个叫also的词,它会告诉我们前后的两句是同等地位的,鉴于每段之后一个point,那么这两句都被排除了。那么除了第一句我们好像也没有更好的选择了。可能有的同学会找到because,然后认为because前面的那半句是point。但是,因为also的存在粉碎了这样的观点,同时我们要知道,在使用推理论证的过程中,因果是可以不止一层的,很可能是AàBàCàD的过程。我们不能because A,B 就误认为B是point。其实独立写作和综合写作时互通的,在独立写作中学到的论证方法可以帮住我们阅读,而阅读中学到的表达方式和行文风格也可以借鉴到独立写作之中。

  现在观点找到了,我们开始简单猜一猜听力部分的分论点吧。这个嘛,不会太精确,但是可以给我们指出一个大概分方向。说阅读部分有多重要,可能需要重新开一篇文章了,但是我们先记住它主要就好了。

  三个sub point分别是:quickly, creative solution, rewarding。

  那么反驳的时候,就是不quickly、不creative solution和不rewarding。第一个和第三个是没有问题的,但是对于creative和solution的反驳却有三个角度,一个是不creative,一个是不solution,一个是两个都反驳。就这篇文章的听力部分来说,是既反驳的creative,又反驳了solution。如果在听力部分听不到这个点,那就是一定会丢点的。很多学生都觉得自己听懂了,觉得这个无论是语速还是词汇都远小于单独的听力部分测试。但是,这两者之间是很有很大区别的,听力测试是有题目和选项的,更多的是要求大家抓到主干即可,如果要考细节,那么就会有重听。但是综合写作却考的是精听,要你听到观点和分论点之后,还有写出support。有的学生说听懂之后,我让他来复述,都会漏掉很多的细节,因为听的时候要么记笔记,要么记句子,这些都是不可取的。这部分应该和文章阅读一起单独跟大家说一说。下面我们来看这篇文章的听力部分吧。

  Now I want to tell you about what onecompany found when it decided that it would turn over some of its new projectsto teams of people, and make the team responsible for planning the projects andgetting the work done. After about six months, the company took a look at howwell the teams performed.

  现在我要给大家讲讲在一个公司考虑以团队工作的形式进行项目时候的发现吧。这几个项目是以团队的形式负责和完成的。六个月之后,公司来验收项目进行的如何。#p#副标题#e#

  On virtually every team, some members gotalmost a “free ride” . . . they didn’t contribute much at all, but if theirteam did a good job, they nevertheless benefited from the recognition the teamgot. And what about group members who worked especially well and who provided alot of insight on problems and issues? Well . . . the recognition for a jobwell done went to the group as a whole, no names were named. So it won’tsurprise you to learn that when the real contributors were asked how they feltabout the group process, their attitude was just the opposite of what thereading predicts.

  实际上,在每个团队都会有一些成员选择“搭便车”。这些成员并没有对团队的工作有任何贡献,但是如果整个团队很好地完成了任务,他们也会从团队所获得的认可中获利。那么对于那些在团队中努力工作,为团队所面临的问题和正义提供很多简介的人呢?没有人知道他们的名字。当这些真正的贡献者被问及团队工作的感受是,他们的态度则是和阅读部分所预计的相反的。你应该不会对这样的态度感到意外的。

  Anotherfinding was that some projects justdidn’t move very quickly. Why? Becauseit took so long to reach consensus; ittook many, many meetings to build the agreement among group members about howthey would move the project along.

  另一个发现就是,一些项目进行的速度不是很快。为什么呢?这是因为团队需要很长的时间达成一致意见,他们需要开很多会才能在成员之间对于如何进行项目达成共识。

  On the other hand, there were otherinstances where one or two people managed to become very influential over whattheir group did. Sometimes when those influencers said “That will never work”about an idea the group was developing, the idea was quickly dropped instead ofbeing further discussed. And then there was another occasion when a coupleinfluencers convinced the group that a plan of theirs was “highly creative.”And even though some members tried to warn the rest of the group that theproject was moving in directions that might not work, they were basicallyignored by other group members. Can you guess the ending to this story? Whenthe project failed, the blame was placed on all the members of the group.

  在另一方面,有些证据表明在团队中会有一到两个人会对整个团队非常有影响力。有时候,当他们对团队中正在运行的想法说了一句“这是行不通”的时候,这个想法就会在没有进行深入谈讨论之前就被放弃了。同时,还会存在这样一种情况:这些有影响力的人笃定他们相处的方法是“非常有创造性的”。这时候,即便有些成员会试图提醒其他成员项目现在正在沿着一个错误的方向进行,甚至有可能失败的。但是他们的声音会被其他的成员所忽略。你能猜到这个故事的结局吗?结局就是,当这个项目失败的时候,责备会被所有团队成员一同承担。

  托福综合写作听力观点抽出方法:

  听力部分的观点顺序不一定跟阅读部分是完全一致的,这一点还是比较常见的。在篇文章里,听力部分的第二段,反驳的就是rewarding这个点,第三段反驳的是quickly,而第四段则分别反驳了creative和solution。先说好的idea可能不经深入讨论就drop了,这样creative就无从实现了,接着说在influential的影响下可能在错误的方向上进行,进而失败,以驳斥了solution。#p#副标题#e#

  托福综合写作笔记:

  需要注意的标志词:

  Another, on the other hand, because, andthen there was another occasion 在听力部分,because后面的话可就变得重要了。

  笔记上的重点词:

  记笔记是一定要的,因为考的是精听,细节记不下来就会失分。但是不要记句子,而是记单词。就这篇文章来讲,你的笔记上需要出现以下词:

  -didn’t contribute, benefit, no names were named, opposite of readingprediction

  -didn’t move very quickly, long to consensus, many meetings

  -influential, never work – dropped, high creative – warn, direction notwork – ignore, fail, blame on all members.

  在实际记笔记的过程中,你可以选择自己特有的简写方法,那么你的笔记将会更加简洁。听的时候不要因为一个两个词的纠结影响大片信息的提取。

  托福综合写作阅读文章结构:

  第一段:要表达的内容有:passage部分的主观点,lecture 部分的主观点,以及两者之间的关系。

  第二段:passage部分的sub point 1,lecture部分对应的sub point,lecture里面相对应的support和details。

  第三段:passage部分的sub point 2,lecture部分对应的sub point,lecture里面相对应的support和details。

  第四段:passage部分的sub point 3,lecture部分对应的sub point,lecture里面相对应的support和details。

  TIP:没有必要在文章中出现passage部分的support和details,或者说不能出现。#p#副标题#e#

  托福综合写作范文(仅供参考):

  The lecturer talks about research conductedby a firm that used the group system to handle their work. He says that thetheory stated in the passage was very different and somewhat inaccurate whencompared to what happened in reality.

  First, some members got free rides. Thatis, some didn’t work hard but got recognition for the success nonetheless. Thisalso indicates that people who worked hard were not given recognition theyshould have gotten. In other words, they weren’t given the opportunity to“shine”. This directly contradicts what the passage indicates.

  Second, groups were slow in progress. Thepassage says that groups are more responsive than individuals because of thenumber of people involved and their aggregated resources. However, the speakertalks about how the firm found out that groups were slower than individuals in decisionmaking. Groups needed more time for meetings, which are necessary procedures indecision making. This was another place where experience contradictedtheory.

  Third, influential people might emerge andlead the group towards glory or failure. If the influent people are going inthe right direction there would be no problem. But in cases where they go in thewrong direction, there is nobody that has enough influence to counter thedecision made. In other words, the group might turn into a dictatorship, withthe influential party as the leader, and might become less flexible in itsthinking. They might become one-sided, and thus fail to succeed. ratingannotation:

  Once you can read past what seem to be theresults of poor typing, this Benchmark 5 does an excellent job of presentingthe points about the contribution and recognition of group members as well asabout speed of group decisions. The final paragraph contains one noticeableerror (“influent”), which is then used correctly two sentences later(“influential”). Overall, this is a successful response and scored within(though perhaps not at the top of) the 5 level.

展开显示全文