阅读背景知识积累:

  伦勃朗·哈尔曼松·凡·莱因(Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn 1606年7月15日- 1669年10月4日)是欧洲17世纪最伟大的画家之一,也是荷兰历史上最伟大的画家。台湾简称为林布兰特。伦勃朗早年从师P.拉斯特曼,1625 年在家乡开设画室。画作体裁广泛,擅长肖像画、风景画、风俗画、宗教画、历史画等。

  托福综合写作阅读材料:

  Rembrandt is the most famous of theseventeenth-century Dutch painters. However, there are doubts whether somepaintings attributed to Rembrandt were actually painted by him. One such paintingis known as attributed to Rembrandt because of its style, and indeed therepresentation of the woman’s face is very much like that of portraits known tobe by Rembrandt. But there are problems with the painting that suggest it couldnot be a work by Rembrandt.

  伦勃朗是十七世纪荷兰最富盛名的画家。然后,对于有些画作是否确实出自他手却是颇有争议的。有一副有争议的画归于伦勃朗名下是因为其风格属于伦勃朗,同时画上女子的面庞也同伦勃朗其他画作中的人物非常类似的。然而,这幅画中存在的一些问题却表明这幅画不是伦勃朗的作品。

  First, there is something inconsistentabout the way the woman in the portrait is dressed. She is wearing a whitelinen cap of a kind that only servants would wear-yet the coat she is wearinghas a luxurious fur collar that no servant could afford. Rembrandt, who wasknown for his attention to the details of his subjects’ clothing, would nothave been guilty of such an inconsistency.

  首先,这幅画上的一个问题就是画中女子的衣着有些不协调。她带着一个白色的亚麻帽子,这是一种仆人才会戴的帽子。但是穿的衣服却有一个奢华的皮草领子,这样的衣服是仆人阶层所不能承受的。以关注作品服饰细节著称的伦勃朗是不会在作品中发这样的错误的。

  Second, Rembrandt was a master of paintinglight and shadow, but in this painting these elements do not fit together. Theface appears to be illuminated by light reflected onto it from below. But belowthe face is the dark fur collar, which would absorb light rather than reflectit. So the face should appear partially in shadow-which is not how it appears.Rembrandt would never have made such an error.

  第二,伦勃朗是光影大师,但是在这幅作品中光影却是不协调的。人物的面庞被来自下面的光照亮了,但是面部下面却是深色的皮草领子。这个深色的皮草领子应该是吸光而不是反光的,所以面部应该呈现的是半明半暗的状态,而不是全部都是亮的。伦勃朗是绝不会犯这样的错误的。

  Finally, examination of the back of thepainting reveals that it was painted on a panel made of several pieces of woodglued together. Although Rembrandt often painted on wood panels, no paintingknown to be by Rembrandt uses a panel glued together in this way from severalpieces of wood.

  最后,对于画作背侧的检查发现这幅画的木板是有几块木头粘在一起的。尽管伦勃朗常常会在木板上作画,但是尚未发现伦勃朗使用几块拼接的木板作画。

  For these reason the painting was removedfrom the official catalog of Rembrandt’s paintings in the 1930s.

  因为上述原因,这幅画在1930年代从伦勃朗的官方画作目录中移除了。

  托福综合写作阅读部分需要提取的观点是:

  -Main point: The painting is not a work by Rembrandt.

  -Sub point 1: There is something inconsistent about the way the woman inthe portrait is

  dressed.

  -Sub point 2: Light and shadow do not fit together.

  -Sub point 3: Panel made of several pieces of wood glued together whichis never done by Rembrandt.

  托福综合写作阅读观点抽出方法:

  -这篇文章的阅读部分可以说是非常和谐的,无论是main point还是sub points都是非常清晰明了的。

  -但是需要注意的是这篇文章段内展开是需要仔细看的。很多的时候大家都认为只要知道point就够了,其他的就听就行了。但是,三分钟的时间我们真的足够可以把这篇文章仔细看完,甚至做好笔记。如果你听力足够好,不看可以,但是什么样才是足够好呢?听力部分TPO满分算吗?答:不算。听力部分是泛听,还有题目和套路去辅助你。但是综合写作部分就没有这么好,这么慢的速度,这么短的文章,怎么可能听个大概就放过你们呢?

  -如果阅读部分的展开是基于事实的,那么一定一定要认真看,对于我们听力部分有很好的促进作用。事实是不能被反驳的,有黑色的领子是不会变的,光影不协调是不会变的,拼接木版是不会变的。那么在听力部分只能是基于这些事实进行explanation。这样,谈的话题都会是离不开阅读部分的细节的。不看的话就以为这你要在听力的时候记相当多的内容。

  -听力部分有人问要不要记笔记。如果你是个正常人,不是超长的,那么就要记。因为不是听个大概就可以了,要有细节和reasoning,正常人是记不住的。

  -很奇怪吗?lecture部分也有reasoning?当然,你要反驳一个观点,没有推理怎么可以?不是你堆砌听到内容就可以了,写出的文章要经得起问why。

  在听力部分,我们可以猜到的是这幅画还是伦勃朗的画作。但是passage部分的理由都是基

  于事实且非常充分。看来,无论怎样,这些细节都是lecture部分绕不过去滴。

  Everything you just read about “Portrait ofan Elderly Woman in a White Bonnet” is true, and yet

  after a thorough re-examination of thepainting, a panel of experts has recently concluded that it’s indeed a work byRembrandt. Here is why.

  刚才你读到的关于“戴白帽的老妪”的说法都是真的。但是经过专家小组对这幅画彻底的检查,最近确定这幅画确实是伦勃朗的作品。原因如下:

  First, the fur collar. X-rays and analysisof the pigments in the paint have shown that the fur collar wasn’t part of theoriginal painting. The fur collar was painted over the top of the originalpainting about a hundred years after the painting was made. Why? Someoneprobably wanted to increase the value of the painting by making it look like aformal portrait of an aristocratic lady.

  首先是皮草领子。专家小组用X光检查并分析了画上的颜料,发现这个皮草领子不是原画作的组成部分。这个皮草领子是在成画后一百年之后直接画在原画上面的。这么做的目的是什么呢?可能是有人想让这幅画看起来像是一个贵族女子的正式画像,以为这样可以提高画的价值。

  Second, the supposed error with light andshadow. Once the paint of the added fur color was removed, the originalpainting could be seen. In the original painting, the woman is wearing a simplecollar of light-colored cloth. The light-colored cloth of this collar reflectslight that illuminated part of the woman’s face. That’s why the face is not inpartial shadow. So in the original painting, light and shadow are veryrealistic and just what we could expect from Rembrandt.

  第二,所谓的光影问题。只要把这个后加上来的皮草领子移除,我们就能看到原画。在原画上,这个女人穿的是一个有这单领的浅色袍子。这个带领子的浅色袍子能够把光反射到女人的脸上。这是为什么这个女人的脸上没有呈现出半明半暗的状态。所以呢,原画上的光影是具备伦勃朗应该具有的写实风格的。

  Finally, the wood panel. It turns out thatwhen the fur collar was added, the wood panel was also enlarged with extra woodpieces glued to the sides and the top to make the painting more grand and morevaluable. So the original painting is actually painted on a single piece ofwood, as would be expected from a Rembrandt painting. And in fact, researchershave found that the piece of wood in the original form of “Portrait of anElderly Woman in a White Bonnet” is from the very same tree as the wood panelused for another painting by Rembrandt, his “Self-portrait with a Hat”.

  最后,木板的问题。研究发现,在加上皮草领子的同时,木板也是被认为的增大了。有人在原画的上边和侧面粘上了木板,以期望可以使这幅画看起来更大和更贵重。所以这幅话最初是画在一个单块木板上的,这样就符合我们对伦勃朗风格的期待了。同时,研究人员发现这幅“戴白帽的老妪”上所使用的木材同伦勃朗的另一幅画所使用的木板来自同一颗树。这幅画是他的“戴帽子的自画像”,这一点更有力地说明了这幅画是伦勃朗所作。

  托福综合写作阅读文章结构:

  第一段:要表达的内容有:passage认为这幅画不是伦勃朗所作;lecture 部分认可passage部分说陈述的事实,但是这幅画确实是伦勃朗的作品。

  第二段:passage指出这幅画作的人物的衣着不协调,而这不是伦勃朗的风格(具体说存在的不协调)。Lecture部分说这个别扭的领子是后人加上去的,其目的是提高这幅画的价值。(要谈到目的)

  第三段:passage指出这幅画作上光影有问题(具体说存在的问题)。Lecture对这个问题做了解释,是由于深色的皮草领子造成的,如果移除之后可以发现原画衣着的颜色是可以在脸上造成相同的光影效果的。

  第四段:passage指出这幅画是几块木板拼接的(要说明这不是伦勃朗的风格)。Lecture部分分了两点来支持自己的观点。首先,原画是单块木板的,拼接是后人加上去的,其目的是提高价值。其次,这幅画同伦勃朗的“戴帽子的自画像”是源自同一棵树的。

  TIP:这篇文章在成文的过程中不可避免的要对passage部分进行一定的转述,仅仅写TS是不够的。这是因为这些要转述的细节是lecture 反驳的基础,如果回避了,就无法逻辑清晰了,因为会给读者天外飞仙之感。在成文的过程中,lecture部分的细节是重中之重,一定要把那些回答why的内容体现出来。这就是为什么要求精听了。听了个大概,然后开始猜细节,这样的结果只有一种,那就是死的很惨。所以,不要随便说自己听懂了,如果试着一句一句的听写出来,或者仔细看看lecture 部分的文本,是很容易发现自己漏掉了一些好像很小但是却很重要的部分。

  托福综合写作范文(仅供参考):

  The lecture revises the idea presented inthe text, that Rembrandt was not the artist who painted the famous painting“Portrait of an Elderly Woman in a White Bonnet”. The inconsistency between thewhite cap, which identifies the woman as a servant, and the expensive furcollar she wears dissolves as the Professor explains that the fur collar was apparentlypainted over the original painting to increase its worth by displaying anaristocratic woman.

  In addition, the assumption that light andshadow in the painting do not fit together is refuted by the fact that in theoriginal painting, the woman wears a light cloth that illuminated her face.Thus the presentation of light and shadow was indeed very realistic andaccurate, as it is characteristic of Rembrandt’s paintings.

  Finally, the mystery of the panelconsisting of patches glued together is also solved in the lecture. Actually,the wood panel was later enlarged to make it more grand and valuable, but theoriginal painting was painted on a single panel, as Rembrandt would have doneit. Furthermore, the wood is of the same tree used in other Rembrandtpaintings, like the “Self-Portrait with a Hat”.All this information points to Rembrandt as the painter of thecontroversial painting.

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