In an effort to encourage ecologicallysustainable forestry practices, an international organization started issuingcertifications to wood companies that meet high ecological standards by onserving resources and recycling materials. Companies that receive thiscertification can attract customers by advertising their product as Ecocertified. Around the world, many wood companies have adopted new, ecologicallyfriendly practices in order to receive Eco certification. However, it is unlikelythat wood companies in the United Stated will do the same, for several reasons.


  First, American consumers are exposed to somuch advertising that they would not value or even pay attention to the Ecocertification label. Because so many mediocre products are labeled “new” or“improved,” American consumers do not place much trust in advertising claims ingeneral.


  Second, Eco certified wood will be moreexpensive than uncertified wood because in order to earn Eco certification, awood company must pay to have its business examined by a certification Agency.This additional cost gets passed on to consumers – American consumers tend tobe strongly motivated by price, and therefore they are likely to choose cheaperuncertified wood products. Accordingly, American wood companies will prefer tokeep their prices low rather than obtain Eco certification.


  Third, although some people claim that italways makes good business sense for American companies to keep up with thedevelopments in the rest of the world, this argument is not convincing.Pursuing certification would make sense for American wood companies only ifthey marketed most of their products abroad. But that is not the case –American wood businesses sell most of their products in the United States,catering to a very large customer base that is satisfied with themerchandise.



  - Main point: 环保认证对于美国木材公司意义不大

  - Sub point 1:美国消费者对于广告上的环保认证并不信任

  - Sub point 2:环保认证会提高产品价格,而美国的消费者对于价格敏感

  - Sub point 3:这项认证只对海外市场有效,而美国木材公司的市场主要在国内

  Well, despite what many people say, thereis good reason to think that many American wood companies will eventually seek Ecocertification for their wood products.


  First of all, consumers in the UnitedStates don’t treat all advertising the same. They distinguish betweenadvertising claims that companies make about their own products and claims madeby independent certification agencies. Americans have a lot of confidence inindependent consumer agencies. Thus ecologically-minded Americans are likely toreact very favorable to wood products ecologically certified by an independentorganization with an international reputation for trustworthiness.


  Second point, of course it’s true thatAmerican consumers care a lot about price. Who doesn’t? but studies of howconsumers make decisions show that price alone determines consumers’ decisions onlywhen the price of one competing product is much higher or lower than another.When the price difference between two products is small, say, less than fivepercent as is the case with certified wood, Americans often do choose onfactors other than price. And Americans are becoming increasingly convinced ofthe value of preserving and protecting the environment.


  And third, US wood companies shoulddefinitely pay attention to what’s going on in the wood businessinternationally, not because of foreign consumers but because of foreigncompetition. As I just told you, there’s a good chance that many Americanconsumers will be interested in Eco certified products. And guess what? IfAmerican companies are slow capturing those customers, you can be sure thatforeign companies will soon start crowing into the American market, offering Ecocertified wood that domestic companies don’t.



  Main point: prejudice

  Sub point one: don’t, the same, independentcertification, ecologically certified

  Sub point two: much higher or lower, lessthan five percent, value, environment

  Sub point three: foreign competition,interested, offering Eco certified wood


  The lecture and the reading passage givecontradictory opinions on the topic of_________. The passage explains that________ while the lecture provides several counterarguments to this view.

  First, the lecturer argues that the readingpassage is too general in its statement that________. He assertsthat________.

  The lecturer also refutes the second pointin the reading – that_________. The professor contends that________.

  Finally, _________, according to theprofessor, is__________. According to the reading, however, ____________.


  The lecture and the reading passage givecontradictory opinions on the topic of Eco certification, a form ofaccreditation conferred by an international agency in recognition of acompany’s ecofriendly practices. The passage explains that it is not necessaryfor American wood companies to pursue Eco certification while the lectureprovides several counterarguments to this view.

  First, the lecturer argues that the readingpassage is too general in its statement that American consumers rejectadvertising completely. He asserts that Americans do not trust advertisingclaims for a product only when these claims are made by the company that sellsthe product. When a claim is made by an independent third party such as a woodcertification company, he posits, consumers respond very positively with strongacceptance of the certified product.

  The lecturer also refutes the second pointin the reading – that price-sensitive American consumers are likely to choosecheap wood products without certification. The professor contends that certifiedwood is only slightly (less than 5%) more expensive than uncertified wood, andtherefore, he argues, consumers will tend to ignore the price difference andchoose the eco-friendly product.

  Finally, receiving eco-certification is,according to the professor, an important strategy used by American wood companiesto ensure that their products can compete against Eco certified wood productsimported into the domestic market from foreign countries. According to thereading, however, this strategy is unnecessary because American consumers arelikely to be content with domestically manufactured products, even if they arenot Eco certified.