托福综合写作背景知识:

  简·奥斯汀(Jane Austen,1775年12月16日-1817年7月18日)是英国著名女性小说家,她的作品主要关注乡绅家庭女性的婚姻和生活,以女性特有的细致入微的观察力和活泼风趣的文字真实地描绘了她周围世界的小天地。

  阅读材料:

  Jane Austen (1775-1817) is one of the mostfamous of all English novelists, and today her novels are more popular thanever, with several recently adapted as Hollywood movies. But we do not havemany records of what she looked like. For a long time, the only accepted imageof Austen was an amateur sketch of an adult Austen made by her sisterCassandra. However, recently a professionally painted, full-length portrait ofa teenage girl owned by a member of the Austen family has come up for sale.Although the professional painting is not titled Jane Austen, there are goodreasons to believe she is the subject.

  简·奥斯汀是最有名的英国小说家之一。时至今日,她的作品变得更受欢迎了,有数部被好莱坞改编成电影了。但是对于她的长相却没有太多的记录。很长一段时间以来,唯一被认可的奥斯汀的画像是她妹妹卡桑德拉画的。但是这幅成年奥斯汀素描并不是出自于专业画家。然而,最近一副奥斯汀家族成员持有的画像想要出售。这幅出自专业画家之手的全身画像上面是一个少女奥斯汀。尽管这幅专业画作上并没有写有简·奥斯汀,但是我们还是有足够的理由相信画上的人就是她。

  First, in 1882, several decades afterAusten’s death, Austen’s family gave permission to use the portrait as anillustration in an edition of her letters. Austen’s family clearly recognizedit as a portrait of the author. So, for over a century now, the Austen familyitself has endorsed the claim that the girl in the portrait is Jane Austen.

  首先,在1882年,在奥斯汀去世几十年后,奥斯汀家族曾经授权这幅画作为她出版的书信集上本人画像。奥斯汀家族当然能够确认这幅画就是作者。所以,一个多世纪过去了,奥斯汀家族还是为这幅画背书,认为这个女孩就是简·奥斯汀本人。

  Second, the face in the portrait clearlyresembles the one in Cassandra’s sketch, which we know depicts Austen. Thoughsomewhat amateurish, the sketch communicates definite details about Austen’sface. Even though the Cassandra sketch is of an adult Jane Austen, the featuresare still similar to those of the teenage girl in the painting. The eyebrows,nose, mouth, and overall shape of the face are very much like those in thefull-length portrait.

  第二,这幅画上人物的面容和卡桑德拉画的那幅画很相似,而卡桑德拉的画作上的人物确定是奥斯汀。尽管卡桑德拉的画作略显业余,但是还是很好地描绘了奥斯汀面部的细节的。尽管卡桑德拉的画描绘的是成年简·奥斯汀,但是面部细节还是同这幅画上少女奥斯汀非常相似的。眉毛、鼻子、嘴和整个轮廓都跟这幅全身画作非常相似。

  Third, although the painting is unsignedand undated, there is evidence that it was painted when Austen was a teenager.The style links it to Ozias Humphrey, a society portrait painter who was thekind of professional the wealthy Austen family would hire. Humphrey was activein the late 1780s and early 1790s, exactly the period when Jane Austen was theage of the girl in the painting.

  第三,机关这幅画没有署名也没有日期,但是确信这幅画的绘制时间是奥斯汀少女时期。这幅画从风格上看是奥扎厄斯·汉弗里的作品。他是一个专门受雇于奥斯汀这样富有家族的上流社会肖像画家。汉弗里活跃时期是1780末到170年初,而这个时期恰好正是简·奥斯汀十几岁的时期。

  托福综合写作阅读部分需要提取的观点是:

  - Main point: 有一副画上面的人物是简·奥斯汀

  - Sub point 1: 这幅画得到了奥斯汀家族的认可

  - Sub point 2: 面容同简·奥斯汀的另一幅画很像

  - Sub point 3: 风格上看是奥扎厄斯·汉弗里的作品,此人活跃时期简·奥斯汀的年龄同画作相符

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