2015年4月12日的托福战役已经结束,希望大家都能打一场漂亮的胜仗。马上就要迎来4月18日份的考试啦,智课网小编也已经在第一时间将4月18日的托福考试预测整理出来了,抓紧时间来获取吧!

  另外补充一句,同学们可以微信扫描文章下方的二维码关注微信公众号,托福考试最新的真题预测及解析,都会在第一时间公布喔~

  独立写作部分-五星级重点

  1、★★★★★

  If a city has given money to investment, which option would prefer: 1. build a public garden to provide a quiet environment to benefit all 2. build a sports field for students in a high school that doesn’t have its own

  2、★★★★★

  Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? To truly enjoy a

  vacation(holiday), people should leave their mobile phones at home.

  3、★★★★★

  Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? We should state our honest opinions even though other people may disagree with them.

  4、★★★★★

  Some parents do not agree with the way teachers are teaching their children. Do you think that parents should express their disapproval to the teachers?

  5、★★★★★

  Society benefits more from works of great artists than from political leaders.

  6、★★★★★

  Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Teachers were more appreciated and valued by the society in the past than they are now.

  7、★★★★★

  Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Workers would be much happier if they are doing different types of tasks during their workday than doing the same task.

  8、★★★★★

  Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? In order to attract good students, a university should spend a lot of money funding social activities.

  9、★★★★★

  Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Teachers should be paid according to how well their students perform.

  10、★★★★★

  Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? The environmental issue is too complex to be handled by the individual.

  11、★★★★★

  Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Students are more interested in politics today than they were in the past.

  12、★★★★★

  Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Students could receive a better, more efficient education if they spend 11 months a year studying.

  13、★★★★★

  Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? The most important problems in today’s world will be solved in our lifetime.

  14、★★★★★

  Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? The most important things people learn are from their families.

  15、★★★★★

  Some students prefer to have their final grades determined by numerous small assignments, whereas others prefer to have their final grades determined by only a few large ones.

  独立写作部分-四星级重点

  16、★★★★

  Students must take a class in which they learn a practical skill. School administrators are trying to decide whether to hold a class in cooking, managing personal finances or auto repair. Which do you think the school should require students to take? Why?

  17、★★★★

  Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? The more money people have the more they should give away to charity.

  18、★★★★

  Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Teachers were more appreciated and valued by the society in the past than they are now.

  19、★★★★

  Do you agree or disagree: Professional athletes or performers shouldn't be involved in politics.

  20、★★★★

  Many high school students are doing a lot of school work already. Some people believe that students should help their parents with household chores, since if s the best way to give them a sense of responsibility.

  21、★★★★

  Some people say that students should study many lessons during a semester, but others say that it is better for students to just take three or four lessons. Which do you think is better?

  22、★★★★

  Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? It is much easier for people to achieve success without their family members’ help now than in the past.

  23、★★★★

  Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? In order to succeed in doing a new job, the ability to adapt oneself to the new environment is more important than the excellent knowledge of this job.

  24、★★★★

  Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Competition between friends always has a negative effect on their friendship.

  25、★★★★★

  Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? The most important goal of education is to teach people how to educate themselves.

  26、★★★★

  Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? It is as important for older people to study or learn new things as it is for younger people.

  27、★★★★

  When choosing a place for living, which factor is the most important one for you? 1. Living in an area not expensive, 2. Living close to relatives 3. Living in an area with many shops and restaurants.

  28、★★★★

  If your teacher says something incorrect in a class, what will you do? 1. Interrupt your teacher right away 2. Keep silent 3. Correct your teacher after class

  29、★★★★

  Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Parents should allow children to make mistakes and let them learn from their own mistakes.

  30、★★★★

  Do you agree or disagree with the following statement: The car (automobile) has had a greater effect on society than the airplane.

  综合写作部分-五星级重点

  1、★★★★★

  阅读部分:

  讲 congestion pricing。说为了缓解交通拥堵,想要在city中的某个区域收费,这样就能缓解一下。

  1. 这样做可以improve time(主要就是说节省时间)

  2. 可以改善环境improve that area's environment

  3. 收的fee 可以用于revenue。the city 可以再修路,修桥什么的

  听力反驳:

  1.这样做有些司机不愿意花钱走这个区域就得绕路,更浪费时间。举了个例子:送快递的,他们要省钱,所以送快递的时候会变长。

  2. 在收费区里面环境可能会好点,但是周围的车相对就会增多,noise and air pollution 就会多。所以不是整个city都能环境变好

  3. 有的人不能afford 这个费用了,就会去坐subway,政府就得出更多的钱维护subway,这样一来收的那点钱可能还不够维护的,所以也不能起到帮助修桥,修路什么的作用了。

  2、★★★★★

  阅读:

  一个什么动物在很久以前身躯很大的原因:那时候氧气含量很多 plant 很多warm climate listening :

  1. 氧气含量其实比现在还少(很多百分比,听糊涂了,这样不确定)

  2. plant 是很多,但是营养很少

  3. warm climate is actually a disadvantage, because they needed to cool off

  3、★★★★★

  "阅读说关于大象有三种很奇幻的说法:

  1,大象能预知自己将死,并找到水边独自死去,形成“grave”。

  2,大象有艺术和绘画的能力,能拿笔画画。(能用鼻子画个花)

  3,大象怕小老鼠(有个实验把他和老鼠放在一起)。

  听力里驳斥

  1,大象是因为老了而牙齿脱落,要软的食品,只能吃软的草,而在水边才容易找到。body 多在水边发现,并不是他们能感知死亡

  2,大象会画画是因为有人训练它教它动作(训象人用摸耳朵的方式)并不是它真的有能力。(只是记住了line 没有创作)

  3,大象不是怕老鼠,是因为它对没见过的东西警觉,这是动物本能,因为它突然冒出来了,本能躲了一下。熟悉了之后就不怕了。当动物园里的大象(对老鼠熟悉了),就根本不在乎了。"

  4、★★★★★

  阅读:越来越多的人对在大公司上班失去了兴趣,转而自己开公司(self-employed):

  1,大公司上班有太多bureaucracy,难以实现自己的idea。

  2,大公司上班工作稳定感大大不如从前。

  3,大公司最近几年不提供extra benefits,比如退休金,更低的医疗保险。

  听力里驳斥

  1,自己开公司要面对的手续会更多。

  2, 自己开公司明显更有风险,稳定感更不强。

  3 , 自己开公司extra benefits 更没有保证。

  5、★★★★★

  阅读是说 有个作家xx 说中国人在between1421 年and 1423 年去过America。

  听力讲座:教授说怀疑中国人没到过America,no evidence to show Chinese came to America 在1421-1423 年

  第一段大概是说Bimix 上面有markings, 是Chinese弄的。

  第二段大概是说在coast land 还是哪里发现了石头的anchors,说是中国人在哪里弄的。

  第三段是说在某个岛上面有个stone tower,有点像lighthouse,说是中国人搞的,然后Chinese sailor could raise and xx platform for repair damaged boats.

  反驳:第一说那些 marking 是natural formation,不是人为的marking,只是像人为的。说geologist 看的话一眼就可以看出是天然行程的。

  第二说那些anchor 也不一定是中国人,因为在那个时候,anchor 已经用了好久在航海了,不只一个国家用锚.

  第三是说那个岛上的tower 不是中式建筑,看起来是England 建筑,说那个岛原来是一个England 的owner 的,这个lighthouse 更像是England 建筑。

  6、★★★★★

  文章是讲的关于Harappan civilization decline 的原因的三个假说。

  第一个是受到游牧民族nomadic tribe 入侵。

  第二个是气候变化导致农业垮了,没有食物。

  第三个是水源被污造成一种通过水传播的流行病,所以就搬迁。

  听力反驳:

  第一个是当时H 文明的地盘很大large scale 游牧民族虽然打了他几个地区但是还不至于导致他decline。

  第二个是同时期的埃及文明和另一种文明同样遭受了气候变化但是都调整了农业有了surplus 的food。所以H 也不可能因为气候变化而decline。

  第三个是H 人都是出色的工程师,他们创造了先进的水系统可以防止疾病通过水传播。

  7、★★★★★

  lecture 讲英国的written book Pearl Poet 真正作者到底是谁,因为只有一个署名儿在这书中的一个poem 的title下面叫什么P. 文章就开猜了,有三种可能性。

  【1】第1 个被认为可能的人John Massey,因为流传下来的他们的作品的handwriting 是一样的;

  【2】第2 个是Hugh,因为H 的其中一首poem 描写的region 和书中一手叫什么骑士Knight 的描写的地方一样

  【3】第3 种猜测是那四首诗是一个collection,Pearl Poet是一堆人。

  听力部分反驳:

  【1】第一个理由,过去的作品都是靠copy 传播的,原版被reproduce 很多次。所以人们看到的可能只是同一个人手抄copy original 的书,不能表明作者相同;

  【2】第二个理由,教授说不是他,因为诗使用的dialect 不同。这俩个人处于不同的地方,会有不同口音dialect,所以那种修辞在不同口音的情况下是不同的;

  【3】像词语vocabulary 的用法啥的都是重复那么多次频率这么高这肯定是一个人写的,不可能有很多人collection 都有这些unique 的特性。

  8、★★★★★

  阅读说 bee 在200 million years 前就存在了的观点受到质疑,理由:

  1 没化石。

  2 没花没食物。

  3 化石结构可能不是bee 的。

  speaker 反驳

  1,没有化石是因为那时候没树,无法preserve 化石。

  2. bee 不是一定要feed on 花的,也可以是pine tree 什么的。

  3.通过化学物质可以断定化石那就是bee 的。

  9、★★★★★

  Anasazi 文明突然vanished , 估计是干旱drought 造成的。理由如下:

  【1】全球变暖,该文明消逝前后的1800AD正值一场大规模的全球变暖,带来严重干旱,导致文明消逝。

  【2】文明消失前,Anasazi 人已经规模的修建水利公事,但估计最后是这些公事没能保证足够的水源,使得Anasazi 人无法应对突如其来的旱灾,被迫离开家园。

  【3】Anasazi 的文明消逝的非常突然with no notice,并且in a short time,说明不是一般的文明衰落的原因。

  教授说,关于 Anasazi 的文明突然消逝的原因很多,但至今没有定论,干旱的说法更是站不住脚。理由如下:

  【1】全球变暖说。文明消失的1800AD 前后是有一次大变暖,但考古发现Anasazi 原住地附近的树长得都很好,一点也不缺水,说明全球变暖带来的缺水说不成立。

  【2】Anazia 人在几百年前就修建水利公事,而且他们完全有能力储备足够的水源,所以,这一说法也不成立。(这一点没听好)

  【3】文明突然消逝,可能是由其他原因造成的。比如瘟疫plague 和战争war.有一种理论认为,另一个强大但缺水的部落civilization 为了争夺水源和Anazia 人打仗,迫使后者离开家园。

  10、★★★★★

  综合写作passage 讲了三种可能的理论来解释一次物种大灭绝,1. sea level decline 造成coast living 灭绝。2. cool climate,主要是火山活动造成的SO2 增多,导致地球变冷。3. asteroid strikes,产生的cater 使植物得不到足够的sunshine,也是恐龙灭绝的原因。

  listening 里的professor 进行一点一点的否决:1. 她说sea level 在那个时候是fluctuate,但是很graduate,所以对coast living造不成影响因为它们能适应环境的变化。

  2. SO 虽然能使地球变冷,但是大气中的SO 不怎么多,而且还为变成酸雨降到地面上。

  3. asteroid 撞击地球是在12 million year ago(好像是,不太确定没在作文里写),在生物大灭绝之前发生,和这次没任何关系。

  11、★★★★★

  阅读文章deep-sea mining

  1. 论述mining 的metal 是适合的

  2. 论述metal 的污染问题0T

  3. 论述mining 的管制法制问题

  讲座反驳:

  1.volcanic mining 出来的metal 不一定available,目前的技术不够好,collect and transportation 技术都不好

  2. 即是metal 只污染2 公里以内的,但是污物业会drift back 回? 动物还是会受影响

  3. 虽然现在很多law 管制,而coast 属于某一个国家。international agency &law 只对公海有效,对coast 无效吧。

  12、★★★★★

  阅读文章说 用GAS 做能源有诸多坏处。1. 不是绿色能源; 造成温室效应。2. 开采用的水添加了化学有毒物质,会污染饮用水体系;3. 开采时噪音和灯光会影响LOCALCOMMUNITIES;

  13、★★★★★

  【主题】

  Electronic medication record电子医疗记录

  Reading:

  It is benefit to have electronic medication record.

  1.Save money

  2.Less error

  3.Provide research data

  Listening:

  Disagree.

  1.Doctors will keep paper records even if they have electronic records.

  2.Doctors like to use paper records, and ask others to input records into computer, which will more easily to make errors.

  Medicine records cannot be used freely.

  14、★★★★★

  Schools in big cities do not have enough teachers, the reading believes that signing bonuses ( offering teachers cash payment,and other financial incentives) project can improve urban schools.

  在大城市的学校没有足够的教师,阅读认为签约奖金(提供教师现金支付,和其他财政奖励)项目可以提高城市学校。

  1. Signing bonus will increase the income, usually teachers' income is low. So this project could stimulate other teacher to apply for urban schools.

  2. The Signing bonuses makes the teachers's salaries comparable with other professions, thus would attract capable candidates from other professions into teaching positions such as computer science, engineers.

  3. The signing bonuses will reduce teacher staffing problem at the beginning of a school term. They will not quit at the beginning of their jobs. Besides, They are legally obligated to pay back the money if they quit.

  听力

  Listening

  The signing bonuses are not likely to solve the problem.

  1. According to a survey concerning what do teachers care the most. Salary is not the top concern. Other factors, such as how well the school administration is, how well the laboratories and libraries are, or even the commute hours matter more to some experienced teachers. So the experienced teachers are not likely to apply for urban schools only for the sake of money.

  2. The biggest obstacle for other professions to enter teaching position is the stressful and long process getting the teaching certification. They have to quit the old jobs to prepare, which results in salary loss. If they are preparing while doing their current job, it would be more stressful.

  3. it would not be a good thing to both teachers and their students if teachers are trapped in their position. Teachers can not leave schools before they pay back the bonus money, they will not in good mood, the teaching and student will suffer.

  15、★★★★★

  Business 的,阅读提出了三种提高销量的方法,听力给予反驳。

  1. New version of existing products,

  反驳的店是如果老顾客不喜欢新版本又会觉得用旧版很过时,就会放弃对这个牌子饮料的消费

  2. New product related to the brand.

  反驳的是如果旧的vehicle的卖点是tough,如果新产品如boots没有这样的quality,就会给公司带来bad reputation.反驳是如果原来买冰淇淋的厂商开始卖巧克力了,会增加巧克力的竞争者。

  3. 联合生产。

  反驳的是如果产品一个企业生产不了那么可以几个公司合作,要不没什么用。举了一个冰淇淋和巧克力的例子。可以如果有一天生产巧克力的那家公司开始自己生产冰淇淋,不再依赖冰淇淋公司,会导致从合作变成竞争关系。

  综合写作-四星级重点

  16、★★★★

  【主题】

  野牛数量的下降

  Reading:

  1.人将它作为了source of food

  2.Migrators 带来的competing for grassland

  3.新科技的发展,如枪的发展

  Listening:

  1.人是从东部迁徙过去的,但是野牛数量下降时从西边开始的,东部也吃野牛,但是数量没有下降。

  2.野牛可以在寒冷的天气下生存,有很厚的皮,还可以吃雪下面的草而牛和马在冷环境下无法存活。

  过去的狩猎武器跟新武器一样有效,所以新武器出现后威力更大的说法是说不通的。

  17、★★★★

  阅读文章:

  在 Rhone river 的河底,考古学家发现了一个bust(就是一种头部雕塑),人们认为这个bust 是Julius Caesar 的。有几个理由:

  【1】style of the sculpture: 头像的艺术风格正好是Caesar 的那个年代的,叫“realist style”【2】resemblance to Caesar’s other portraits : Caesar 年代的silver coin 上有他的头像,和考古发现的这个bust 非常相似,特别是头发

  【3】location of the bust found: Caser 后来被推翻,所以民众不敢在新的国王统治下还保留Caesar 的头像,所以就扔河里了,很说得通。 听力讲座教授反对:

  【1】realism 又不是在Julius Caesar 的时代才有,在Julius Caesar 死后还持续了很久,可能bust 是其他人的作品

  【2】仅仅是与coin 上hair 一样,bust 的鼻子却和coin上的不同,要是出自同一人,all features should be consistent with each other

  【3】被人扔在河边也不是因为政治因素,只是单纯的废品。人们不可能很早就埋好了这个半身像,为了显示自己对Julius Caesar 的崇敬。

  18、★★★★

  reading 谈到了deer鹿的角的三种function

  1st 散热

  2nd keep from predator

  3rd male用来表示他们predominant

  lecture的观点:

  1不对,deer 夏天过后它们的角还在grow呢;cold的地方还grow呢;有些warm的地方deer的角偏小,cold的地方它的角偏大,所以不是用来散热的啊。

  2不对,如果是防predator呢,那female咋不长呢。还有啊,在有些地方deer是kick击退wolf的啊

  3不对,两个deer confront each other,发出song来传达信息,然后其中一只deer walk around,没有clear的迹象表明是角比较小的deer walk around了啊

  19、★★★★

  【主题】Stone 为什么能够被搬到很远的地方

  Reading:(1)风吹的;(2)ice 把stone 包裹起来,滑下去的时候带动stone 移动;(3)人为move。

  Listening:反驳:(1)石头有移动的痕迹,说明阻力很大,由于石头很重,不可能有这么大的风能吹动。(2)那个地方不会有那么大的冰层,temperature 不够低,水不够充足;(3)因为是泥地,如果有人存在,会有痕迹,但是没有痕迹。并没有人或马的脚印留下来。

  20、★★★★

  Reading

  草原上prairie dogs(土拨鼠) 的数量减少,人们就是否应该把其作为保护动物引发了争论。

  1、农民们觉得土拨鼠是 geological pests,因为它们和cattle竞争食物来源(也就是草地资源)

  2、Prairie dogs身上有fleas, 会让接触它们的人们感染患病, do harm to human health.

  3、Prairie dogs do not have enough ecological importance to deserve protection.

  Listening

  1、这种想法outdated, 因为现在cattle obtain food by feeding,就是cattle 的食物来源变了,不会受到土拨鼠的影响。

  2、Prairie dogs身上的fleas在人身上不能存活。 Investigations have shown that in colorado, only 10 people suffered from illness by contacting the prairie dogs in the last 50 years.

  3、虽然土拨鼠是plant eaters, 但是它们也对草原生态系统有重大影响。例如 burrows made by prairie dogs represent a habitat for other species, 蚂蚁什么 的(这里不太确定)。还有prairie dogs 是它们的predators (例如fox)的食物来源。所以 the decline of the number of prairie dogs exerts a negative impact on prairie ecosystem.

  21、★★★★

  阅读 异性头的三种功能

  主要观点 : The special shaped head functions in three ways.

  分论点 1:First, shark with such shaped head turns around quickly.

  分论点 2:Second, such head helps improve the shark’s sensitivity to electricity field.

  分论点 3:Third, the head can be used as weapons to hunt prey.

  听力

  主要观点 : The hammer head sharks do not function in the ways the passage pointed out

  分论点 1:It is true this type of sharks turns around quickly, but the reasons are the skeletons and the joints;The passage drew the conclusion from a group of sharks which are younger and therefore could be more vigorous

  分论点 2:an experiment shows that shark groups demonstrate similar performance in terms of the sensitivity of electrical field, which can be detected with 30 centimeters from the objective.;

  分论点 3:Since Sharks with hammer-shaped head have eyes close to both sides of the head, which makes it highly risky to use hammer head as a weapon; even thought it were used as weapons, there is no evidence showing this behavior is conventional;

  22、★★★★

  Rreading

  总论点:bonobos less aggressive than the chimpanizee。倭黑猩猩比chimpanizee较少侵略性。

  分论点:

  1.The expriment shows less aggressive behavior on the Bonobos.

  2.The Bonobos were observed that they preferred to protect the smaller animals.

  3.The Bonobos does not kill other species.

  Lecture

  听力材料只是用自己的支撑理由对阅读材料进行了直接反驳,并没有提出新的观点。

  总论点:the speaker does not think bonobos less aggressive than the chimpanizee

  1.The result of the expriment cannot prove the real behavior of Bonobos.

  2.The reading ignored the fact that the smaller animal would often attack the bigger ones.

  3.The Bonobos have no access to other species.

  23、★★★★

  阅读材料观点:采取措施使tortoises 数量增长

  1. 种植一种pine trees 保护这种龟的栖息地。

  2. 将研究中心繁育的龟release to wild environment。 3. 将这种龟reintroduce to 一些原本没有这种龟的地方去。 听力逐一反驳:三种方法不现实

  1. 种植pine trees 会使得龟赖以生存的草得不到足够的阳光而长不好,因而会影响龟的数量。

  2. 研究中心繁育的龟不能适应野外的环境。在实验室中病了有人治,但野外没人给它们治。还有就是这种龟可能会传播疾病给野生龟。

  3. 这种龟有一种习惯,总是要返回原来的栖息地,所以即使把它们带到新环境,它们也会想办法回原来的栖息地,这会使它们在回家的途中面临更多的risks,比如说在busy road 被汽车撞死。

  24、★★★★

  文章是讲的关于Harappan civilization decline 的原因的三个假说。

  第一个是受到游牧民族nomadic tribe 入侵。

  第二个是气候变化导致农业垮了,没有食物。

  第三个是水源被污造成一种通过水传播的流行病,

  所以就搬迁。

  听力反驳:

  第一个是当时H 文明的地盘很大large scale 游牧民族虽然打了他几个地区但是还不至于导致他decline。

  第二个是同时期的埃及文明和另一种文明同样遭受了气候变化但是都调整了农业有了surplus 的food。所以H 也不可能因为气候变化而decline。

  第三个是H 人都是出色的工程师,他们创造了先进的水系统可以防止疾病通过水传播。

  25、★★★★

  Passage 讲述养鱼场作为世界上主要的提供鱼类食物的farm 对环境可能会造成严重影响:

  【1】鱼产生大量的by-product,滋生细菌污染环境

  【2】一些饲养的鱼逃跑跟野生鱼交配产生的后代存活能力低

  【3】渔场浪费大量珍贵资源 professor 说事实上这些问题都有已经找到了解决办法:

  【1】有一种细菌可以吃鱼的排泄物,这种细菌会打出来 【2】事实上人工饲养的鱼由于基因变异不大可能跟野生的鱼交配成功

  【3】科学家已经在找到方法通过recycle water 使养虾时使用的被污染的清水可以使用,而且一种生物(会打出来)可以在盐水中生存

  26、★★★★

  Passage: microcredit 不能解决贫困问题。

  1)borrower 没有business skill,做生意很容易失败

  2)小额贷款会increase 银行的administration cost,是inefficient 的。

  3)如果政府把钱投入microcredit 里面,就不能投到其它方面了。

  Lecture: 文章说得不对。

  1)agencies 提供other services,比如教borrower 怎么记账,怎么利润最大化等等。

  2)文章说的问题很好解决:银行可以把钱借给由4-5 个人组成的small groups,这样在相同的cost 下帮助了贫困的人。

  3)由于提供小额贷款的都是agencies,政府其实在这方面save 了money,这样政府就能把钱投到小型贷款不能融资的大型工程,比如建一栋楼什么的。

  27、★★★★

  侏罗纪时代的生物灭绝了,文章说可能是因为彗星撞地球,依据就是一些发现的古老的生物还是什么的碎片,然后它们可以dating back to XXX 年以前,并且在中国,日本还有某个国家都有发现,然后发现某个沟壑还是海峡有可能就是那个坑

  speech 说第一那些碎片的化学物质没有因为地壳运动受热而改变,所以时间应该很短,应该没有250-million-old 这么老。第二碎片只在那三个国家被发现过,如果冲击力那么强的话,那碎片应该是散落在全世界的。第三,类似那个坑的坑到处都是,火山运动也会是造成沟壑的原因,该是地球内部地质活动形成的。

  28、★★★★

  reading passage: 说一种叫T.rex 的恐龙可能是不会跑的,原因有三个:

  1. 体积太大体重太重,如果跑太远,一旦跌倒的话,就会有致命的危险。

  2. T.rex 的腿又细又长。而跑的时候肌肉会对骨头产生很大的力量,而又细有长的骨头难以支撑这种力量,跑久了会断掉;

  3. 根据计算,如果T.rex 这种size 的恐龙要跑的话,体重的分布应该是:86%的体重都在腿部。而T.rex 的体重分布不符合这个计算结果。

  Listening 段子说:这三个理由都很容易被challenge。

  1. 首先,摔倒时有致命的危险并不意味着这种动物就一定不会跑。举例子,比如猴子,也可能在树之间荡的时候摔下来也有致命危险,但他们还是会这样去荡,因为这是一种生存需要。像T.rex 这种predator,会跑带来的好处是很明显的,有益于其捕猎。由于收益大于风险,因此T.rex 很可能还是会跑的。

  2. 腿很细、很高的动物不一定不会跑。事实证明,很多现代动物,如马,虽然腿很细但都能跑。原因是他们会通过调整跑步姿势和方式来降低肌肉对骨头的冲击力。比如,马每跑一下他们的步子都很小,然后他们会不断重复这样的小步子从而向前跑动。

  3. reading passage 的计算是基于假想的T.rex 的样子,很多参数不一定是对的。比如,如果改变一些假设(比如T.rex 的内部器官的体积、跑步的时候是否lean forward,是否hold their back straight),可能算出来的结果是反的,是可以支持“T.rex 是能够跑步的”这一结论。

  29、★★★★

  Wind turbines can be used.(风力涡轮机)

  1 built on sites,not interfere with bat’s migratory system.

  2 The turbines would shut down atnight

  3 people would use radars to keepbats away

  Will not solve problem.

  1. Turbines need to be built where there is wind such as on mountains. Bats live close to mountains.

  2. Tall structures attract bats and it is where they choose to sleep. Bats can sleep in the turbines at night but when the turbines starting working in the daytime, this will alert and harm the bats.

  3. Radar can damage bat’s reproductive system.

  30、★★★★

  富兰克林远征船队的铅中毒死亡事件。文章说不是这样的,因为罐头食物不可能有毒,没有接到同一时期其他人员铅中毒的情报,可能是水清洁system的铅让船员的饮用水有毒。

  教授说:罐头食物可能是有毒的,因为员工很pressure时间紧迫,铅ran done into,铅中毒的症状比如说头疼可能被认为是海上的common symptom;水清洁系统和饮用水系统是seperately的,不可能是污染了饮用水。

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