第六篇 蜜蜂(貌似很少考到)

  Entomology(昆虫学)

  蜜蜂的沟通模式

  讲小蜜蜂。分为honeybee和worker bee。讲了honeybee是怎麼寻找蜜源和如何告诉同伴蜜源的位置的。开头先说蜜蜂和termite 白蚁与很多Species 不同,他们是social。蜜蜂是一个是由社会分工合作的动物(有题问他们有什麼共同点),交流因此就变得很重要(有题)。然后科学家们就开始用他们的聪明才智研究小蜜蜂了。开始以为是honeybee是靠scent交流,然后某德国科学家研究发现scout 用舞蹈来告诉工蜂蜜源的远近,远的用八字舞,近的用圆圈舞。他因此获得炸药奖。交流的内容靠跳8字舞或者circle 区别distance,而不是食物的类别(有题)。原来发现蜜蜂找到窝以后跳舞是指示food type,后来发现more than that。跳舞还指示出了direction and distance。跳舞分两种一种是nectar 花蜜dance另一种pollen花粉dance,有一道题问这个的,nectar 是跳圆圈舞,pollen是跳8 字舞。但是一直有科学家怀疑这个说法直到1989 年,一些科学家为了验证他的理论做了machine bees 模仿scout,就是不去有食物处(这里有考题问机器蜜蜂和其他小蜜蜂有什麼不同),发现robot 使用这些动作果然可以向工蜂有效传递资讯。采蜜只是跳舞来做一些指示。最后发现了小蜜蜂带回来的资讯和wind 无关(这里有考题问except的问题,其他选项是direction, distance 还有一个忘了)

  Bees

  Flowers provide food for bees. The bees collect tiny grains of pollen and a sweet liquid called nectar from the blossoms they visit. They make honey from the nectar, and use both honey and pollen as food.

  During their food-gathering flights, bees spread pollen from one flower to another, thus pollinating (fertilizing) the plants they visit. This enables the plants to reproduce.

  The honey bee colony

  A typical honey bee colony is made up of one queen,tens of thousands of workers, and a few hundred drones 雄峰.

  Honey bees live in hives. The hive is a storage space,such as a hollow 空的tree or a box, which contains a honeycomb 蜂窝. The honeycomb is a mass of six-sided compartments隔间called cells.

  Worker bees build the honeycomb of wax produced by their bodies. The wax oozes 渗出through small pores (holes) in the body and forms tiny white flakes on the outside of the abdomen.

  They also collect a sticky substance bee glue, from certain kinds of trees.

  The body of the honey bee

  A bee has five eyes-three small ones that form a triangle on top of its head, and a large compound eye on each side of its head.

  Honey bees were the first insects known to be able to distinguish colors. Bees have three kinds of color-sensitive cells in their eyes. These visual cells are especially sensitive to blue, yellow, and ultraviolet rays, which humans cannot see.

  The sting of a worker bee is straight, with barbs (hooks) on it. When the bee thrusts the sting into flesh, the barbs hold tight,and the stinger 蛰针pulls out of the bee's body.

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