托福阅读TPO31(试题+答案+译文)第2篇:Early Children Education
【1】Preschools—educational programs for childrenunder the age of five—differ significantly from onecountry to another according to the views thatdifferent societies hold regarding the purpose of earlychildhood education. For instance, in a cross-country comparison of preschools in China,Japan, and the United States, researchers found that parents in the three countries view thepurpose of preschools very differently. Whereas parents in China tend to see preschoolsprimarily as a way of giving children a good start academically, Japanese parents view themprimarily as a way of giving children the opportunity to be members of a group. In the UnitedStates, in comparison, parents regard the primary purpose of preschools as making childrenmore independent and self-reliant, although obtaining a good academic start and havinggroup experience are also important.
【2】While many programs designed for preschoolers focus primarily on social and emotionalfactors, some are geared mainly toward promoting cognitive gains and preparing preschoolersfor the formal instruction they will experience when they start kindergarten. In the UnitedStated, the best-known program designed to promote future academic success is Head Start.Established in the 1960s when the United States declared the War on Poverty, the program hasserved over 13 million children and their families. The program, which stresses parentalinvolvement, was designed to serve the “whole child”, including children’s physical health, self-confidence, social responsibility, and social and emotional development.
【3】Whether Head Start is seen as successful or not depends on the lens through which oneis looking. If, for instance, the program is expected to provide long-term increases in IQ(intelligence quotient) scores, it is a disappointment. Although graduates of Head Startprograms tend to show immediate IQ gains, these increases do lot last. On the other hand, itis clear that Head Start is meeting its goal of getting preschoolers ready for school.Preschoolers who participate in Head Start are better prepared for future schooling than thosewho do not. Furthermore, graduates of Head Start programs have better future school grade.Finally, some research suggests that ultimately Head Start graduates show higher academicperformance at the end of high school, although the gains are modest.
【4】In addition, results from other types of preschool readiness programs indicate thatthose who participate and graduate are less like to repeat grades, and they are more like tocomplete school than readiness program, for every dollar spent on the program, taxpayerssaved seven dollars by the time the graduated reached the age of 27.
【5】The most recent comprehensive evaluation of early intervention programs suggeststhat, taken as a group, preschool programs can provide significant benefits, and thatgovernment funds invested early in life may ultimately lead to a reduction in future costs. Forinstance, compared with children who did not participate in early intervention programs,participants in various programs showed gains in emotional or cognitive development, bettereducational outcomes, increased economic self-sufficiency, reduced levels of criminal activity,and improved health-related behaviors. Of course, not every program produced all thesebenefits, and not every child benefited to the same extent. Furthermore, some researchersargue that less-expensive programs are just as good as relatively expensive ones, such asHead Start. Still, the results of the evaluation were promising, suggesting that the potentialbenefits of early intervention can be substantial.
【6】Not everyone agrees that programs that seek to enhance academic skills during thepreschool years are a good thing. In fact, according to developmental psychologist DavidElkind, United States society tends to push children so rapidly that they begin to feel stressand pressure at a young age. Elkind argues that academic success is largely dependent uponfactors out of parents’ control, such as inherited abilities and a child’s rate of maturation.Consequently, children of a particular age cannot be expected to master educational materialwithout taking into account their current level of cognitive development. In short, childrenrequire development appropriate educational practice, which is education that is based on bothtypical development and the unique characteristics of a given child.#p#副标题#e#
1.According to paragraph l, parents in Japantend to think of preschool primarily as a placewhere children can
A.get a good academic start.
B.expand their emotional development.
C.become more independent.
D.experience being part of a group.
2.The word "Whereas" in the passage is closet in meaning to
3.The word "focus" in the passage is closet in meaning to
4.It can be inferred from paragraph 2 that the Head Start program was designed toserve children who
A.come from families that do not have a lot of money.
B.are not doing very well in kindergarten.
C.were born in the 1950s.
D.need programs that focus primarily on social and emotional factors.
5.According to paragraph 3, the Head Start program had NOT been successful at whichof the following?
A.Helping children adjust to school.
B.Providing long-term increase in IQ scores.
C.Improving school performance throughout high school.
D.Preventing children from being placed in special-education classes.
6.In paragraph 4，the author mentions the "results from other types of readinessprograms" to
A.provide support for the idea that preschool readiness programs have been somewhatsuccessful.
B.question the idea that Head Start is more effective than other preschool readinessprograms.
C.indicate school completion is usually the most reliable indicator of success in mostreadiness programs.
D.emphasize that participation in readiness programs can be increased if costs are reduced.
7.According to paragraph 4, a cost-benefit analysis of one preschool readinessprogram revealed that
A.only one dollar's worth of benefit was gained for every seven dollars spent on the program.
B.the benefits of the program lasted only until the participants reached age 27.C.taxpayerssaved seven dollars for every dollars spent on the program.
D.to be successful, the program would need to receive about seven times as much money as itcurrently receives.
8.The word "comprehensive" in the passage is closest in meaning to
9.Paragraph 5 mentions that participants in early intervention programs have beenshown to do all of the following better than nonparticipants EXCEPT
A.Take care of there health.
B.Support themselves financially.
C.Take care of their own children.
D.Have increased emotional development.
10.According to paragraph 5, which of the following is true about the benefits of earlyintervention programs?
A.These programs produce good short-term benefits but few long-term benefits.
B.Only the most expensive programs provide substantial benefits.
C.The Head Start program provides a range of benefits that no other program can provide.
D.Some children benefit more than others do from these programs.
11.The word "seek" in the passage is closet in meaning to
12.The passage mentions "developmental psychologist David Elkind" in order to
A.give an example of an expert who has designed an effective early childhood educationprogram.
B.introduce an alternative view about the value of early childhood education.
C.explain why early childhood education programs are less effective in the United States thanin other countries.
D.refute the claim that academic success is dependent on factors outside parents' control.
13. Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence can beadded to the passage.Where would the sentence best fit? According Elkind, not onlydoes this cause the child emotional distress, it also fails to bring the intended cognitivegains.
Not everyone agrees that programs that seek to enhance academic skills during the preschoolyears are a good thing. ■【A】 In fact, according to developmental psychologist David Elkind,United States society tends to push children so rapidly that they begin to feel stress andpressure at a young age. ■【B】 Elkind argues that academic success is largely dependentupon factors out of parents'control, such as inherited abilities and a child's rate of maturation. ■【C】Consequently, children of a particular age cannot be expected to master educationalmaterial without taking into account their current level of cognitive development. ■【D】lnshort, children require development appropriate educational practice, which is education that isbased on both typical development and the unique characteristics of a given child.
14. Directions: An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage isprovided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices thatexpress the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in thesummary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passages or areminor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points.
Preschool programs provide opportunities for young children to develop socially,emotionally, and cognitively.
A.In addition to stressing academic development, preschools should be enjoyable, sincestudies show that children benefit from programs they find fun.
B.Preschool programs such as Head Start have been shown to help prepare children for schooland may also have long-team benefits in helping children become effective adults.
C.Studies have shown that preschool programs are most effective when they focus on onlyone area of development rather than trying to serve the "whole child".
D.The primary purpose of preschool programs varies by country, with some stressing theimportance of group experience, and others self-reliance or getting a good academic start.
E.Critics of preschool programs argue that these programs put undue pressure on childrenand may not be effective of children are not developmentally ready for academic work.
F.David Elkind is a critic of publicity funded preschool programs, arguing that the parentcannot control their children's emotional development.#p#副标题#e#
1.根据题目中Parents in Japan，定位可直接得到答案D。
3.focus是集中的意思， 另外这里和focus配合的介词是on，concentrate也用 on，所以这里帮助推断。
4.根据Head Start定位， 后面的内容就是对Head Start这个program的介绍，首先是 I960年开始的，和C矛盾， 然后说是在US宣布了 War on Poverty (贫穷)的时候，所以是为穷人设计的，符合A。 B没提到，D在这段的开头提到了，但是不是针对Head Start的描述，Head Start目标 是"whole child"，德智体美劳全面发展。
6.利用 results of readiness programs定位到本段第一句，本句内容：参加这些 program留级的可能性小，而且还能省钱，所以选A。
8.comprehensive是全面的，综合的意思，使用代入法，A最易懂的，B完整的，C值得尊敬的，D客观的 中，AC可以排除，不通顺，B和D之间就需要理解 comprehensive的词意来确定。
10.A对应 "reduction in future costs〃证明是 long term 的 benefit，所以A错误。B对应 "less-expensive programs are just as good as relatively expensive ones〃说明便宜和贵的一样好，B选项也不对。 C没提到。D对应not every child benefited to the same extent，正确。
11.seek本身是寻找，追求的意思。A是要求，B是设法，管理， C是失败，D是尝试，所以D 最合适。
13.要插入的句子中有not only，also的结构，那么起到的就是承上启下的作用。句子前面一定出现emotional distress的内容，后面要引出的就是 intended cognitive gains的相关内容，所以选B。
【3】“Head Start”的成功与否取决于人们看待的角度。比如说，如果人们希望它可以带来智商的长期増长，那它终将是令人失望。因为，尽管“Head Start”可以使智力迅速地提高，但这种増长并不会持续太久。另一方面，很显然，“Head Start”的目标是让学龄前儿童做好上学的准备。相对那些没参与过“Head Start”计划的孩子们而言，参加了这个项目的孩子们对学业有着更充分的准备。而且，“Head Start”的毕业生今后的学习成绩会更好。最后，调査表明，虽然收获一般，但最终“Head Start”的毕业生在高中结束时会取得更高的学术成就。