TPO 32

  Reading Passage

  Starting in the 1960s and continuing until the 1980s, sailors in Russian submarines patrolling the North Atlantic and Arctic Ocean would occasionally hear strange sounds. These underwater noises reminded the submarine crews of frog croaks, so they called the sounds “quackers” (from the Russian word for frog sounds). The sources of the sound seemed to be moving with great speed and agility; however, the submarines’ sonar (a method of detecting objects underwater) was unable to detect any solid moving objects in the area. There are several theories about what might have caused the odd sounds.

  The first theory suggests that the strange noises were actually the calls of male and female ocra whales during a courtship ritual. Orca whales are known to inhabit the areas where the submarines were picking up the bizarre noises. Orcas have been studied extensively, and the sounds they make when trying to attract a male are similar to those that the submarines were detecting.

  A second idea is that the sounds were caused by giant squid. Giant squids are gaint marine invertebrates that live deep in the ocean and prey on large fish. They are difficult to detect by sonar because they have soft bodies with no skeleton. Not much is known about giant squid behavior, but their complex brains suggest they are intelligent animals. It is possible they have the ability to emit sound, and perhaps they approached the submarines out of curiosity.

  A third theory suggests the Russian submarines were picking up stray sounds from some military technology, like another country’s submarines that were secretly patrolling the area. Perhaps the foreign submarines did not register on sonar because they were using a kind of technology specifically designed to make them undetectable by sonar. The strange froglike sounds may have been emitted by the foreign submarines unintentionally.

  Listening script

  (female professor) Quackers are certainly a very strange phenomenon. Experts still debate what the source of the sound was. No one can be sure exactly what caused them. But theseexperts cite certain problems with all of the theories that you just read about. Here are a few of the arguments that they made.

  First, the idea that the sounds were caused by Orca whales seems plausible at first but is ultimately highly unlikely. It’s that there are Orca populations in the general areas that the Russian submarines were patrolling. But Orca whales mostly live near the surface of thewater. The submarines typically remain deep in the ocean and should not have been able to hear the whale sounds from near the surface.

  Also the Orca whales would have been detected by the Russian sonar if they were nearby.Giant squid may be a better candidate but one critical fact speaks against this squid theory as well. Russian submarines first detected quacker sound in the 1960s and reports of themcontinued for about two decades. But the sounds disappeared entirely by the 1980s. However, as far as we know, squid have always lived in the ocean where the submarines were patrollingand continue to live there today. If these were squid sound, there would be no reason to suddenly start hearing them in one decade and then suddenly stop hearing them twenty yearslater.

  Third, the idea that the quackers were caused by a secret submarine from another country does not hold up. The sources of the sound appear to move around and change direction veryquickly. Submarines cannot move or change direction that quickly. Also all submarines make some engine noise. But no such noise accompanied the quackers. Even today, we don’t have the technology to build submarines that are that fast and have engines that are that silent.

  Summarize the points made in the lecture, being sure to explain how they challenge the specific theories presented in the reading passage.

  Sample answer」コ

  The reading passage concentrates on several theories about the cause of the odd sounds. However, in the lecture, the professor respectively points out the problems in all the assertions in the reading.

  First, even though the reading passage suggests that the noises were caused by orcas during courtship ritual, the professor argues that orcas live at the surface of the water whereas the submarines dived to the deep ocean and thus cannot hear the sounds. Besides, the nearby whales could have been found by the sonar.

  Second, despite the statement in the reading passage suggesting that the sounds were emitted by giant squid that approached the submarines with curiosity, the professor contends that squids have always lived in the ocean and thereforeit is unlikely that their sounds were first detected in 1960s but disappeared by 1980.

  Third, the author asserts that the Quakers were caused by a foreign submarine while the professor proves that this claim is indefensible by pointing out that submarines cannot move or change direction so quickly,and that the engine noise of all submarines is the same; moreover, even today,it is technologically impossible to build that kinds of fast and silent submarines.

  一、阅读听力要点概括

  Reading Passage

  1. Odd sounds were detected. And there are several theories about them.

  2. The first theory suggests that the strange noises were actually the calls of male and female ocra whales during a courtship ritual.

  3. A second idea is that the sounds were caused by giant squid.

  4. A third theory suggests the Russian submarines were picking up stray sounds from some military technology.

  Lecture

  1. Experts cite certain problems with all of the theories mentioned.

  2. Orca whales mostly live near the surface of the water. The submarines typically remain deep in the ocean and should not have been able to hear the whale sounds from near the surface. Also the Orca whales would have been detected by the Russian sonar if they were nearby.

  3. The sounds disappeared entirely by the 1980s. However, squid have always lived in the ocean where the submarines were patrolling and continue to live there today.

  4. The sources of the sound appear to move around and change direction very quickly. Submarines cannot move or change direction that quickly. Also all submarines make some engine noise. But no such noise accompanied the quackers.

  二、范文逐段赏析

  Paragraph 1

  The reading passage concentrates on several theories about the cause of the odd sounds. However, in the lecture, the professor respectively points out the problems in all the assertions in the reading.

  此段功能

  首段概括了阅读文本中的基本内容,同时提出了演讲者对此的反对意见,言简意赅,为下文论述做好铺垫。

  此段结构

  此段为并列结构,为下文引出论述做铺垫。

  Paragraph 2

  First, even though the reading passage suggests that the noises were caused by orcas during courtship ritual, the professor argues that orcas live at the surface of the water whereas the submarines dived to the deep ocean and thus cannot hear the sounds. Besides, the nearby whales could have been found by the sonar.

  此段功能

  指出文章第一个观点,即这些奇怪的声音是鲸鱼在求偶过程中发出的。而演讲中,教授驳斥道鲸鱼在海水表面生存而潜水艇在深海航行,听不到鲸鱼发出的声音。此外教授还驳斥道在近处的鲸鱼声呐系统是可以发现的,借此来进一步否定这个奇怪的声音是由鲸鱼发出的。

  此段结构

  此段并列结构,指出文章第一个观点,并提出了演讲者的反驳意见。

  Paragraph 3

  Second, despite the statement in the reading passage suggesting that the sounds were emitted by giant squid that approached the submarines with curiosity, the professor contends that squids have always lived in the ocean and therefore it is unlikely that their sounds were first detected in 1960s but disappeared by 1980.

  此段功能

  指出文章第二个观点,即大鱿鱼会因为好奇而接近潜水艇进而发出奇怪的声响。然而在演讲中,教授反驳道大鱿鱼是一直生活在海洋中的,所以他们发出的声音不太可能在二十世纪六十年代被探测到,然而在1980年又消失了。

  此段结构

  此段并列结构,指出文章第二个观点,并提出了演讲者的反驳意见。

  Paragraph 4

  Third, the author asserts that the Quakers were caused by a foreign submarine while the professor proves that this claim is indefensible by pointing out that submarines cannot move or change direction so quickly, and that the engine noise of all submarines is the same;moreover, even today, it is technologically impossible to build that kinds of fast and silent submarines.

  此段功能

  指出文章中的第三个观点,即这声音有可能是由外国潜水艇发出的。但在演讲中教授驳斥道,潜水艇不可能那么快地行进和改变航向,并且所有潜水艇引擎发出的声音是一样的。而且即使在现在的技术条件下也不可能建造出那么迅速而静音的潜水艇。

  此段结构

  此段并列结构,指出文章第三个观点,并提出了演讲者的反驳意见。

  三、范文全篇总评

  1、逻辑结构

  全文采用典型的总分结构,在首段指出文章与演讲观点相悖,接下来分三个方面阐述了演讲中的证据,以此来说明文章的观点不成立。

  2、语言表达

  在文章的第四段,作者用一句话表达清楚了全部意思,值得学习。

  Third, the author asserts that the Quakers were caused by a foreign submarine while the professor proves that this claim is indefensible by pointing out that submarines cannot move or change direction so quickly, and that the engine noise of all submarines is the same, moreover, even today, it is technologically impossible to build that kinds of fast and silent submarines.

  在这个句子中,while的用法值得注意,放在句中表示对比和转折。by引导方式,后面两个that 都引导point out的宾语从句。另外moreover表示此外,引出另外一层含义。

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