TPO 31

  Reading passage

  A fossil skeleton of a dinosaur called Sinosauropteryx, preserved in volcanic ash, was discovered in Liaoning, China, in 1996. Interestingly, the fossil included a pattern of fine lines surrounding the skeletal bones. Some paleontologists interpret the lines as evidence that Sinosauropteryx had feathers. However, critics have opposed the ideathat Sinosauropteryx was a feathered dinosaur, citing several reasons.

  First, the critics points out that the fine lines may not even represent functional structures of a living dinosaur, but rather structures that were formed after the animal’s death. After the animal died and was buried in volcanic ash, its skin may have decomposed into fibers. The skin fibers then became preserved as lines in the fossil; the lines were misinterpreted as evidence of feathers.

  Second, even if the fine lines are remains of real structures of a Sinosauropteryx, scientists cannot tell with certainty what part of the dinosaur’s anatomy the structures were. Many dinosaurs had frills, ornamental fan-shaped structures growing out of some parts of their bodies. Some of the critics argue that the lines surrounding the skeleton are much more likely to be fossilized remains of frills than remains of feathers.

  A third objection is based on the fact that the usual functions of feathers are to help animals fly or regulate their internal temperature. However, the structures represented by the lines in the Sinosauropteryx fossil were mostly located along the backbone and the tail of the animal. This would have made the structures quite useless for flight and of very limited use in thermoregulation. This suggests that the lines do not represent feathers.

  Listening Scripts

  Now listen to part of a lecture on the topic you just read about.

  Professor

  The evidence that the lines in the Sinosauropteryx fossil represent feathers is very strong. The arguments of the critics are unconvincing.

  First, it is unlikely that the lines are a result of the decomposition of the dinosaur's skin, because we don't see any such decomposition in the fossils of other animals buried at the same site. In fact, the fossils of many other animals buried at the site show evidence that their functional skin structures have been beautifully preserved in volcanic ash. The well-preserved condition of the other fossils makes it likely that the Sinosauropteryx's lines are also well-preserved functional structures, possibly feathers, and that they are not fibers caused by decomposition.

  Second, the idea that the lines represent frills.., well, there is an important chemical difference between feathers and frills. Feathers contain a great deal of a protein called Beta-keratin. Frills, on the other hand, do not contain beta-keratin. Our chemical analyses suggest that the Sinosauropteryx structures did contain beta-keratin. So that indicates that the structures were feathers, not frills.

  Third, feathers can be used for other functions than flight and thermoregulation. Think of a bird, like peacock, for example. The peacock has long, colorful feathers in its tail. And it displays its tail in order to attract a mate. That's a distinct function of feathers called the display function. Recently, we have been able to do analyses on the Sinosauropteryx structures that show us that the structures were colorful. They were orange and white. The fact that they were colorful strongly supports the idea that they were feathers that this dinosaur use for display

  Sample answer」コ

  The reading passage refutes the idea that the lines in the Sinosauropteryx fossil indicated a feathered dinosaur by demonstrating several counterarguments. The lecturer, however, is strongly convinced that lines could represent feathers through addressing the questions advanced by the reading.

  To start with, according to the reading, those lines may derive from decomposition of a dead dinosaur's skin instead of being part of a living one. The lecturer does not believe this point for the reason that other animals' fossils that were buried at the same site have not shown such kind of decomposition; instead, their functional skin structures have been perfectly preserved in the volcanic ash. Therefore, these lines are likely to be well-preserved feathers instead of fibers.

  Moving on, the reading proposes that the lines may be frills rather than remains of feathers. The listening argues this is not true. She further explains that there is an apparent chemical difference between feathers and frills. Feathers contain a protein called beta-keratin while frills do not.The chemical analysis suggested that Sinosauropteryx's structures contain the protein beta-keratin.

  Last but not least, the reading puts emphasis on such a fact that lines around the backbone and the tail of the Sinosauropteryx cannot play the role of helping it fly or regulating its body temperature but common feathers have these functions. The lecturer, by contrasts mentions other functions of the feathers by using a peacock as an example. A peacock has colorful feathers on its tail to attract the mate. Recent analysis has found that Sinosauropteryx's structures were also colorful, which can also be used for display.

  一、阅读听力要点概括

  Passage Reading

  1. Some paleontologists interpret the lines as evidence that Sinosauropteryx had feathers. However, critics have opposed this idea.

  2. First, the fine lines may not even represent functional structures of a living dinosaur, but rather structures that were formed after the animal’s death.

  3. Second, the lines surrounding the skeleton are much more likely to be fossilized remains of frills.

  4. A third objection is that the structures represented by the lines in the Sinosauropteryx fossil would have made the structures quite useless for flight and of very limited use in thermoregulation.

  Lecture

  1. The critics’ arguments are not so convincing.

  2. First, it is unlikely that the lines are the result of the decomposition of the dinosaur’s skin, because we don’t see any such decomposition in the fossils of other animals buried at the same site.

  3. Second, chemical analysis suggests that the Sinosauropteryx do not contain beta-keratin that frills do not contain, but feathers do.

  4. Feathers have other functions, like display function.

  Paragraph 1

  The reading passage refutes the idea that the lines in the Sinosauropteryx fossil indicated a feathered dinosaur by demonstrating several counterarguments. The lecturer, however, is strongly convinced that lines could represent feathers through addressing the questions advanced by the reading.

  此段功能

  文章首段概括介绍了阅读中的观点,即认为化石中的线条不能显示这是一只有羽毛的恐龙。而演讲者则认为这些线条可以显示是恐龙的羽毛,指出双方的矛盾点,为下文论述做好铺垫。

  此段结构

  此段为并列结构,分别陈述了文章和演讲中的两方不同观点。

  Paragraph 2

  To start with, according to the reading, those lines may derive from decomposition of a dead dinosaur's skin instead of being part of a living one. The lecturer does not believe this point for the reason that other animals' fossils that were buried at the same site have not shown such kind of decomposition; instead, their functional skin structures have been perfectly preserved in the volcanic ash. Therefore, these lines are likely to be well-preserved feathers instead of fibers.

  此段功能

  指出文章第一个观点,即认为这些线条是死亡恐龙的皮肤分解腐烂所致,而不是在一只活恐龙身上的一部分。但是演讲者反驳道,这一地区附近的化石上都没有这种腐烂现象,而且被火山灰保存得很好。由此可以证明这些线条就是恐龙的羽毛。

  此段结构

  此段并列结构,指出文章第一个观点,并提出了演讲者的反驳证据。

  Paragraph 3

  Moving on, the reading proposes that the lines may be frills rather than remains of feathers. The listening argues this is not true. She further explains that there is an apparent chemical difference between feathers and frills. Feathers contain a protein called beta-keratin while frills do not. The chemical analysis suggested that Sinosauropteryx's structures contain the protein beta-keratin.

  此段功能

  指出文章第二个观点,即这些线条可能是褶皱而非恐龙的羽毛。演讲者进一步解释并反驳了这一点,褶皱和羽毛化学成分不一样,而化学分析显示,化石中包含有羽毛中才有的化学成分,以此来证明这些线条是恐龙羽毛。

  此段结构

  此段并列结构,指出文章第二个观点,并提出了演讲者的反驳证据。

  Paragraph 4

  Last but not least, the reading puts emphasis on such a fact that lines around the backbone and the tail of the Sinosauropteryx cannot play the role of helping it fly or regulating its body temperature but common feathers have these functions. The lecturer, by contrasts mentions other functions of the feathers by using a peacock as an example. A peacock has colorful feathers on its tail to attract the mate. Recent analysis has found that Sinosauropteryx's structures were also colorful, which can also be used for display.

  此段功能

  指出文章第三个观点,即这些分布在脊椎和尾巴上的化石线条不能起到帮助飞行和调节体温的作用,通常这些作用羽毛都可以实现。而演讲者反驳道羽毛的作用不止于此,她以孔雀为例,说明彩色的羽毛还有展现魅力吸引异性的作用,而研究表明这些化石结构就是彩色的,所以它也非常有可能是用来展现魅力的。

  此段结构

  此段并列结构,指出文章第三个观点,并提出了演讲者的反驳证据。

  三、范文全篇总评

  1、逻辑结构

  全文采用典型的总分结构,在首段指出文章与演讲观点相悖,接下来分三个方面阐述了演讲中的证据以此来反驳文章观点。

  2、语言表达

  文章中表达观点陈述的连接词值得学习。to start with,moving on, last but not least, 层层递进,使文章的表达条理清晰,层次分明。

  同时一些常用的表达对比的词也可以借鉴,如 refute, however, not agree for the reason that, instead, therefore,put emphasis on, by contrast等。

展开显示全文