TPO 29

  Reading passage

  。。。。Large numbers of dinosaur fossils have been discovered in deposits on Alaska。ッs North Slope, a region that today experiences an extremely cold, arctic climate. One hundred million years ago, when those dinosaurs were alive, the environment of the North Slope was already inhospitable, especially during the winter when it experienced several months of total darkness. How did the dinosaurs survive the wintertime? Paleontologists have proposed that one of the most common North Slope dinosaurs, the elephant-sized edmontosaur (Edmontosaurus), survived the winter by migrating south to more hospitable regions. Several arguments support the migration hypothesis.

  。。。。First, the edmontosaur。ッs diet supports the migration hypothesis. Edmontosaurs fed exclusively on plants. Since there would have been no plants growing during the cold and dark North slope winter, it appears that the edmontosaur must have left for at least part of the year and migrated to more temperate zones to find food.

  。。。。Second, many edmontosaur skeletons have been unearthed from the same site. This suggests that edmontosaurs lived in herd. Many modern-day migratory animals, such as caribou and buffalo, live and migrate in herds as well. Moving in herds helps animals coordinate their migration. The finding that edmonotsaurs lived in herds further supports the migration hypothesis.

  。。。。Finally, ednonosaurs were physically capable of migrating long distances. To reach more hospitable region, the edmontosaur had to migrate about 1,600 kilometers southward. To make such a journey, the edmontosaur needed to move at about five kilometers per hour for several weeks, which is certainly could do. These animals could run very fast, reaching speeds up to 45 kilometers per hour. It could have easily used its locomotive power to move to warmer climate during the harsh arctic winters.

  Listening script

  The hypotheses that the Edmontosaur migrated every winter is not convincing.
First, the Edmontosaur did not have to migrate to find food. One hundred million years ago, the summer temperatures in the North Slope area were warmer than they are today. And remember, in arctic regions like the North Slope, the sun shines 24 hours a day at the peak of the summer. The warm temperatures and extensive daylight created incredibly good growing conditions for plants, so much vegetation was produced during the summer that when the vegetation died as the winter came, there was a lot of nutritious dead vegetation around in the winter. The Edmontosaur could have easily lived on the dead plant matter during the winter.

  Second, just because of Edmontosaur lived in herds doesn’t mean they migrated. Animals live in herds for many other reasons. Living in herds, for example, provides animals with extra protection from predators. Having extra protection is useful even for the animals that live in the same area the whole year round. A modern example of this is the Roosevelt elk - a large plant-eater. Roosevelt elks live in the forests of the western United States. They live in herds but they do not migrate.

  Third, although adult Edmontosaurus were capable of migrating long distances, what about Edmontosaurus that were not yet adults? Juvenile Edmontosaurus were not physically capable of traveling the great distances required to reach warmer territories and would have slowed the herds so much that the herds never would have made it toits destination. The herd could not have left the juveniles behind because the juveniles would not have survived on their own. So the whole herd had to stay where they were and survive the cold North Slope.

  Sample answer」コ

  In the reading material, the author argues that Edmontosaurus migrated to the southern part in order to survive the cold weather in the North Slope. The lecturer, however, reputes that it is not convincing at all for the following three reasons.

  First of all, the passage points out that Edmontosaurus fed on plants exclusively and it was difficult for them to find food in cold winter. Yet the speaker argues that warm weather in summer provided perfect condition for plants to grow. So Edmontosaurus might have found lots of nutritious dead vegetation around during the winter, which made migration unnecessary.

  Second, unearthed skeletons from the same site indicated that Edmontosaurus lived in herds. Living in herds made migration much easy. But the lecturer gives an example of Roosevelt elks to prove that group living might have various types of reasons. So Edmontosaurus may live in herds in order to seek for extra protection. So living in herds could not provide evidence for migration claim.

  Lastly, Edmontosaurus, in view of the writer, had the ability of long-distance movement. Although the lecturer admits the locomotive capability of Edmontosaurus, he points out that juvenile Edmontosaurus lacked such ability. So the herd would not leave juveniles behind in the North Slope, which strongly reputes the author’s claim.

  一、阅读听力要点概括

  Reading Passage

  Edmontosaur (Edmontosaurus), survived the winter by migrating south to more hospitable regions.

  1. Edmontosaurs fed exclusively on plants which cannot find in the cold and dark North slope winter,

  2. Many edmontosaur skeletons have been unearthed from the same site, which suggests that edmontosaurs lived in herd.

  3. Ednonosaurs were physically capable of migrating long distances.

  Lecture

  Edmontosaur migrated every winter is not convincing.

  1. Edmontosaur did not have to migrate to find food because of one hundred million years ago the summer temperatures in the North Slope area were warmer than they are today.

  2. Animals lived in herds for many other reasons. For example, provides animals extra protection from predators.

  3. Juvenile edmontosaur were not physically capable of travelling in great distances required to reach warmer territories and would have slowed the herds so much that the herd never would have made to its destination.

  二、范文逐段赏析

  Paragraph 1

  In the reading material, the author argues that Edmontosaurus migrated to the southern part in order to survive the cold weather in the North Slope. The lecturer, however, reputes that it is not convincing at all for the following three reasons.

  此段功能

  在文章首段,总结了阅读材料中的主要观点,即Edmontosaurus移民到南部是为了在North Slope的寒冷气候下生存。然而演讲者提出三点反驳意见,并为下文论证做好铺垫。

  此段结构

  此段为并列结构,分别指出了阅读材料和演讲的观点。

  Paragraph 2

  First of all, the passage points out that Edmontosaurus fed on plants exclusively and it was difficult for them to find food in cold winter. Yet the speaker argues that warm weather in summer provided perfect condition for plants to grow. So Edmontosaurus might have found lots of nutritious dead vegetation around during the winter, which made migration unnecessary.

  此段功能

  本段提出第一个矛盾点,先陈述了文章的观点,即Edmontosaurus很难在寒冷的冬天找到食物。然而演讲者指出,夏天植物很好生长,冬天Edmontosaurus也可以在腐烂的蔬菜里找到很多营养,因此没有移居。

  此段结构

  此段为并列结构,分别陈述了阅读材料和演讲的观点。

  Paragraph 3

  Second, unearthed skeletons from the same site indicated that Edmontosaurus lived in herds. Living in herds made migration much easy. But the lecturer gives an example of Roosevelt elks to prove that group living might have various types of reasons. So Edmontosaurus may live in herds in order to seek for extra protection. So living in herds could not provide evidence for migration claim.

  此段功能

  本段提出第二个矛盾点。在同一地点尚未挖掘的骨架证明Edmontosaurus是游牧居住,而游牧居住更有利于移居。而演讲者给出了Roosevelt elks的例子说明群居不一定更方面移居,也有可能是为了寻求保护。

  此段结构

  此段为并列结构,分别陈述了阅读材料和演讲的观点。

  Paragraph 4

  Lastly, Edmontosaurus, in view of the writer, had the ability of long-distance movement. Although the lecturer admits the locomotive capability of Edmontosaurus, he points out that juvenile Edmontosaurus lacked such ability. So the herd would not leave juveniles behind in the North Slope, which strongly reputes the author’s claim.

  此段功能

  本段提出了第三个矛盾点。文章指出Edmontosaurus有长距离移动的能力。演讲者虽然承认Edmontosaurus具有这一能力,然而他指出幼年的Edmontosaurus缺乏这种能力,而族群不会将年幼的Edmontosaurus留在North Slope,以此来反驳文中观点。

  此段结构

  此段仍然是并列结构,分别阐述了双方的观点和证据。

  1、逻辑结构

  全文采用总分的结构,在首段提出了文章与演讲各自的观点以及争论的焦点,在接下来的三段分三个方面分别进行了论证反驳。

  2、语言表达

  Edmontosaurus might have found lots of nutritious dead vegetation around during the winter, which made migration unnecessary.这个句子中,首先一个难点是虚拟语气的使用。Might have done表示对于过去可能做的事情的推断。另外,which 引导的非限定性定语从句实际上交代事情的结论。

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