综合写作22

  Reading

  Ethanol fuel, made from plants such as corn and sugar cane, has been advocated by some people as an alternative to gasoline in the United States. However, many critics argue that ethanol is not a good replacement for gasoline for several reasons.

  First, the increased use of ethanol fuel would not help to solve one of the biggest environmental problems caused by gasoline use: global warming. Like gasoline, ethanol releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere when it is burned for fuel and carbon dioxide is greenhouse gas: it helps trap heat in the atmosphere. Thus, ethanol offers no environmental advantage over gasoline.

  Second, the production of significant amounts of ethanol would dramatically reduce the amount of plants available for uses other fuel. For example, much of the corn now grown in the United States is used to feed farm animals such as cows and chickens. It is estimated that if ethanol were used to satisfy just 10 percent of the fuel needs in the United States, more than 60 percent of the corn currently grown in the united stated would have to be used to produce ethanol. If most of the corn were used to produce ethanol, a substantial source of food for animals would disappear.

  
Third, ethanol fuel will never be able to compete with gasoline on price. Although the prices of ethanol and gasoline for the consumer are currently about the same, this is only because of the help in the form of tax subsidies given to ethanol producers by the United States government. These tax subsidies have cost the United States government over $11 billion in the past 30 years. If the United States government were to stop helping producers in this way, the price of ethanol would increase greatly.

  Listening

  Ethanol actually is a good alternative to gasoline, although you just read three reasons why it’s not a good alternative, not one of these three reasons is convincing.

  First, the increased use of Ethanol fuel will not add to global warming. It’s true that, when Ethanol is burned, it releases carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, but as you read, Ethanol is often made from plants such as corn. Well, the process of growing the plants counteracts this release of carbon dioxide. Let me explain. Every growing plant absorbs carbon dioxide from the air as part of its nutrition. So growing plants for Ethanol production actually removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

  Second, large scale production of Ethanol doesn’t have to reduce the sources of food for animals. That’s because we can produce Ethanol using cellulose, cellulose is the main component of plants’ cell walls, and you’ll find most cellulose in those parts of plants that are not eaten by animals. So, since we can produce Ethanol from the plant parts that aren’t eaten, the amount of animal feed that is available will not be reduced.

  Third, in the future, Ethanol will be able to compete with gasoline in terms of price. It’s true that government subsidies make Ethanol cheaper than it would normally be, but this support won’t always be needed. Once enough people start buying Ethanol, Ethanol producers will increase their production of Ethanol. Generally, increased production of products leads to a drop in its price. So the price of Ethanol will go down as more of it becomes available. Studies show that, if Ethanol production could be three times greater than it is now, the cost of producing a unit of Ethanol will drop by forty percent.

  一、阅读听力要点概括

  Reading Passage

  Main points: Many Critics think ethanol is not a good replacement for gasoline.

  Sub point 1: Ethanol emits CO2 when it burns and has no advantage to environment.

  Sub point 2: Production of ethanol cuts energy supply to food.

  Sub point 3: Ethanol price would increase if government stops subsidies.

  Lecture

  Attitude: Not convincing.

  Sub Point 1: Growing plants absorbs CO2 so it removes CO2 from atmosphere.

  Sub Point 2: Ethanol is produce using parts that aren’t eaten. (Cellulose, main of plants)

  Sub Point 3: Ethanol can compete with gas in price in the future. (Increase leads drop in price.)

  Answer

  二、范文逐段赏析

  Paragraph 1

  The lecturer refutes all the evidence in the reading passage, which evidence seems to affirm there are existing shortages of ethanol. He also holds that ethanol is quite likely a good replacement of gasoline as a future fuel.

  此段功能:

  (Listening passage后文提到用L代替)

  (Reading passage后文用R代替)

  以L为根本,L觉得R的证据和观点都不可信,作者用了一个同义词refute(驳倒),L驳倒了R的所有证据,觉得酒精是一个非常好的汽油代替品。

  此段结构:

  首段第一句话以L出发,L反对R的所有并复述R的观点。第二句复述L的观点,使读者知道L准备要反驳的点。

  Paragraph 2

  First, the application of ethanol will not create as much heat as the use of gasoline. Although the burning of ethanol also generates carbon dioxide, it will not significantly add to the severity of global warming. Since the production of ethanol requires the planting and harvesting of corn, which growth in turn requires carbon dioxide as nutrition, the heightened amount of unwanted gas will be offset therewith. This is the situation for which the reading doesn’t account.

  此段功能:

  引出第一个分论点,说大面积应用酒精并不会造成太多温室效应。因为酒精的种植过程会吸收很多二氧化碳。R中没提到这个吸收过程,L就攻击了这个点。

  此段结构:

  此段为总分结构,先列举L的观点,酒精不会产生那么多温室气体。然后就开始写L的证据,最后告诉读者,刚才举的证据恰好是R没想到的,R证据不足。

  Paragraph 3

  Second, the production of ethanol doesn’t reduce the food supply for farm animals. Because ethanol can be made out of any part of the plant cell walls, which contain cellulose, the cost of using the plants’ useful parts can be avoided. This advantage renders the worry of the reading totally unnecessary.

  此段功能:

  引出第二个分论点,酒精制造是不会减少家禽的食物供给。因为酒精是使用不可作为食料的包含纤维素的植物细胞做的。R中提到的忧虑是毫无必要的。

  此段结构:

  此段为总分结构。先确立L的观点(不会减少食物供给),再给解释,最后说这个优势显得R的忧虑无必要,从而达到了驳到R的地步。

  Paragraph 4

  Finally, the price of ethanol will be largely reduced if the scale of manufacture increases. According to statistics, if the manufacture scale, following heavier demand of consumers, can be enlarged by three times, its cost will be reduced by forty percent. Under such circumstance, the government subsidies mentioned in the reading would no longer be needed.

  此段功能:

  引出第三个分论点。在价格的竞争力上,L的总结是,大规模制造酒精会使成本大量下降。随后列举了具体数字,在具体数字的验证下,原先担心的政府停止资助导致酒精价格飙升这种事情是不需要担心了。

  此段结构:

  此段为总分结构。首先复述表明L的观点,然后列举支撑L的例子或数字,最后为总体逻辑服务,说R的观点not convincing。

  三、范文全篇总评

  1、逻辑结构

  全文遵从逻辑总分结构,第一段复述了双方的观点并且表明了L对R的态度,随后三个论段依次展开。每段中L提出新的证据,新的解释,最后一一驳倒R的观点。

  2、语言表达

  文中偏难词不多,但用在了一些非常有创意的表达方法,可以借鉴的有:

  1. affirm:证实

  /confirm/verify/

  I affirm what he said is ture.

  2. add to the severity of: 增加了(某事件)的严重性

  3. This advantage renders the worry of the reading totally unnecessary.

  Render:渲染,表现

  /Provide/declare/

  The power of ocean is beautifully rendered in this poem.

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