TPO18

  Reading

  In the 1950s Torreya taxifoha, a type of evergreen tree once very common in the state of Florida, started to die out. No one is sure exactly what caused the decline, but chances are good that if nothing is done, Torreya will soon become extinct. Experts are considering three ways to address the decline of Torreya.

  The first option is to reestablish Torreya in the same location in which it thrived for thousands of years. Torreya used to be found in abundance in the northern part of Florida, which has a specific microclimate. A microclimate exists when weather conditions inside a relatively small area differ from the region of which that area is a part. Northern Florida's microclimate is very favorable to Torreya's growth. This microclimate is wetter and cooler than the surrounding region's relatively dry, warm climate. Scientists have been working to plant Torreya seeds in the coolest, dampest areas of the microclimate.

  The second option is to move Torreya to an entirely different location, far from its Florida microclimate. Torreya seeds and saplings have been successfully planted and grown in forests further north, where the temperature is significantly cooler. Some scientists believe that Torreya probably thrived in areas much further north in the distant past, so by relocating it now, in a process known as assisted migration, humans would simply be helping Torreya return to an environment that is more suited to its survival.

  The third option is to preserve Torreya in research centers. Seeds and saplings can be moved from the wild and preserved in a closely monitored environment where it will be easier for scientists both to protect the species and conduct research on Torreya. This research can then be used to ensure the continued survival of the species.

  Listening

  You’ve just read about three ways to save Torreya taxifolia. Unfortunately, none of these three options provides a satisfactory solution.

  About the first solution-reestablishing Torreya in the same location-that’s unlikely to be successful, because of what’s happening to the coolest dampest areas within torreya’s micro-climate. These areas are being strongly affected by changes in the climate of the larger region. This could be because global warming has contributed to an increase in overall temperatures in the region or because wetlands throughout Florida have been drained. Either way, many areas across the region are becoming drier, so it’s unlikely that Torreya would have the conditions it needs to survive anywhere within its original Florida micro-climate.

  Now about the second solution, relocating Torreya far from where it currently grows, well, let’s look at what happened when humans helped another tree, the black locust tree, move north to a new environment. When they did this, the black locust tree spread so quickly that it killed off many plants and trees in the new environment, and some of these plants and trees were themselves already in danger of becoming extinct . So assisted migration can have unpredicted outcomes for the new environment.

  Third, research centers are probably not a solution either. That’s because the population of Torreya trees that can be kept in the centers will probably not be able to resist diseases. For a population of trees to survive a disease, it needs to be relatively large and it needs to be genetically diverse. Tree populations in the wild usually satisfy those criteria but research centers would simply not have enough capacity to keep a large a diverse population of Torreya trees, so trees in such centers will not be capable of surviving diseases in the long term.

  一、阅读听力要点概括

  Reading Passage

  Main points: There are 3 Ways to stop the decline of Torreya.

  Sub point 1: Reestablish Torreya in the same location.

  Sub point 2: Move Torreya to a new location.

  Sub point 3: Preserve Torreya in research centers.

  Lecture

  Attitude: Not satisfy.

  Sub Point 1: Unlikely to successful. (Changes of climate, warming, areas drier.)

  Sub Point 2: Black locust tree killed many plants in new environment. (Already in danger, Unpredictable.

  Sub Point 3: Not a solution. (Large and diverse needed, not enough capacity, can’t survive in long term.)

  Answers

  二、范文逐段赏析

  Paragraph 1

  In the reading passage the author describes three ways to address the decline of Torreya. However, the professor doubts the arguments presented in the passage will be effective, stating that none of the three ways will work.

  此段功能:

  (Listening passage后文提到用L代替)

  (Reading passage后文用R代替)

  作者先用一句话描述例如R的论点(有三种防止T树的数量下降的方法),L反驳说这些方面都没用。确认了逻辑关系为反,引出三个讨论。

  此段结构:

  开头段作者先复述了R的论点,接着确立逻辑关系,接着准备3个点的详细论证。

  Paragraph 2

  To begin with, the professor points out that the first option mentioned in the passage, reestablishing Torreya in the ecosystem, will not succeed. Why? Many areas within Florida’s microclimate region are becoming drier either from global warming or from disappearing wetlands. Consequently, this region now cannot provide the necessary conditions Torreya needs to survive.

  此段功能:

  以L的观点起头,谈sub topic 1,在原地区种植T树是不会成功的。因为在Florida的气候发生了变化,原因可能是全球变暖或者湿地消失。现在这片地区已经不能很好的使T树生长了。

  此段结构:

  此段为总分结构。第一句陈述L的观点,接着说明具体原因,最后达到反驳R观点的效果。

  Paragraph 3

  Additionally, the professor claims that the second option, relocating Torreya, will be in vain. To illustrate this argument, the professor introduced an example of another tree which was moved to a new environment and then quickly spread to kill off other plant species, including some already-endangered ones.

  此段功能:

  还是以L观点出发,谈sub topic 2,异地种植T树也不合适。教授举例说,另外一种树在移植后生长太疯狂把别的树包括稀有树木都侵蚀了。

  此段结构:

  总分结构。第一句总结L观点。第二句用类比手法举例,达到支撑L观点的作用。

  Paragraph 4

  Finally, the professor objects to the third option of preserving Torreya in research centers. The population of Torreya, she explains, has to be genetically diverse in order to resist diseases. Additionally, research centers are very different from the wild and are not able to maintain the necessary size and diversity.

  此段功能:

  讨论sub topic 3, L说在研究院保护T树也不合适。T树有很多基因分布,研究院没有足够的条件维持这么复杂的,庞大的种群。

  此段结构:

  总分结构。第一句总结L观点,接下来做出解释,举出例子,达到推翻R结论的目的。

  三、范文全篇总评

  1、 逻辑结构

  全文遵从总分结构。分别从R的三个方法出发,一个个列举方法的不合适的地方。一一驳倒R的观点。当然L也没有给出解决方案,只是达到了验证R方法是错误的目的。

  2、语言表达

  全文简单流畅,结构层次平铺直叙。每个分论段中,先告诉读者R不对,接着就举出对应例子和证据,验证了了三个方法都是不可靠的,从而达到了L的反驳效果。其中可以借鉴的词句有:

  1. will be in vain:会徒劳无功

  2. Illustrate: 举例说明

  /show/demonstrate/

  The professor illustrated the differences between those two things.

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