The United Kingdom (sometimes referred to as Britain) has a long and rich history of human settlement. Traces of buildings, tools, and art can be found from periods going back many thousands of years: from the Stone Age, through the Bronze Age, the Iron Age, the time of the Roman colonization, the Middle Ages, up to the beginnings of the industrial age. Yet for most of the twentieth century, the science of archaeology—dedicated to uncovering and studying old cultural artifacts—was faced with serious problems and limitations in Britain.
First, many valuable artifacts were lost to construction projects. The growth of Britain's population, especially from the 1950s on, spurred a lot of new construction in British cities, towns, and villages. While digging foundations for new buildings, the builders often uncovered archaeologically valuable sites. Usually, however, they proceeded with the construction and did not preserve the artifacts. Many archaeologically precious artifacts were therefore destroyed.
Second, many archaeologists felt that the financial support for archaeological research was inadequate. For most of the twentieth century, archaeology was funded mostly through government funds and grants, which allowed archaeologists to investigate a handful of the most important sites but which left hundreds of other interesting projects without support. Furthermore, changing government priorities brought about periodic reductions in funding.
Third, it was difficult to have a career in archaeology. Archaeology jobs were to be found at universities or with a few government agencies, but there were never many positions available. Many people who wanted to become archaeologists ended up pursuing other careers and contributing to archaeological research only as unpaid amateurs.
In 1990, new rules and guidelines were adopted in United Kingdom and that had changed the whole feel of Archaeology in that country. The new guidelines improved the situation in all 3 areas discussed in the passage.
First, the new guidelines state that before any construction project can start, the construction site has to be examined by archaeologists to see whether the site is of archaeological interest or value. If the site is of archaeological interest, the next step is for the builders, archaeologists and local government officials to get together and make a plan for preserving the archaeological artifacts, either by building around them or by excavating a document in them properly before the construction is allowed to proceed.
Second, an important part of new guidelines is the rule that any archaeological work done on the construction site will be paid for by the construction company not by the government. The construction company has to pay for the initial examination of the site, and then for all the work carried out under the preservation plan. This is whole new source of financial support. The funding from the construction company has allowed researchers to study a far great range of archaeological sites than they could in past.
Last, the new guidelines provide a lot of paid work for archaeologists, work that didn’t exist before. Expert archaeologists are now hired all stage of the process to examine the site for archaeological value, then have to drop the preservation plan to do the researcher and professional scientific manner and finally to process the data and write reports and articles. The increased job career opportunities in Archaeology have increased the number professional archaeologists in Britain which is now the highest it’s ever been.
Main points: Archaeology was faced with problems in Britain.
Sub point 1: Valuable artifact were lost in construction.
Sub point 2: Financial support to archaeology is felt inadequate.
Sub point 3: It is difficult to have a career in archaeology.
Attitude: New guidelines have improved the situation.
Sub Point 1: Archaeologist examines building before construction. (Make a plan)
Sub Point 2: Company pays for the archaeological work at construction. (New financial support.)
Sub Point 3: Lot of paid work for archaeologists. (Highest number in Britain.)
The writer of the reading passage pointed out that archaeology in Britain had serious problems and limitations, whereas the professor asserted the opposite by introducing new guidelines, implemented by UK in 1990, that are said to have improved the situation of archaeology.
First, the new guidelines provide that a construction site be examined of its archaeological interest before any project planned on it can proceed. If the site holds archaeological value, relevant parties must provide a preservation plan to protect its value. This measure successfully addresses the first problem mentioned in the reading: the loss of precious artifacts resulting from construction projects.
Second, the new guidelines state that the construction companies must fund any archaeological work done on the construction site, from the initial examination to the following work under the preservation plan. This rule provides a new source of financial support for archaeologists. It also allows more archaeological sites to be studied, which solves another problem listed in the reading: inadequate funding.
Third, the new guidelines create many more jobs in archaeology. These experts are hired at various stages of the process, which stages can include examination, preservation, research and documentation. Increased career opportunities in this field boost the number of professional archaeologists to the highest and eliminates the last problem in the reading: insufficient jobs in the field.
1. whereas the (人物B) asserted the opposite by…(观点B)
2. address (文中为处理的意思)
The new law addresses the recent type of internet crime.
3. Boost: 快速增大
The stock price boosted after the introduction of new type technology.