综合写作16

  Reading

  The United Kingdom (sometimes referred to as Britain) has a long and rich history of human settlement. Traces of buildings, tools, and art can be found from periods going back many thousands of years: from the Stone Age, through the Bronze Age, the Iron Age, the time of the Roman colonization, the Middle Ages, up to the beginnings of the industrial age. Yet for most of the twentieth century, the science of archaeology—dedicated to uncovering and studying old cultural artifacts—was faced with serious problems and limitations in Britain.

  First, many valuable artifacts were lost to construction projects. The growth of Britain's population, especially from the 1950s on, spurred a lot of new construction in British cities, towns, and villages. While digging foundations for new buildings, the builders often uncovered archaeologically valuable sites. Usually, however, they proceeded with the construction and did not preserve the artifacts. Many archaeologically precious artifacts were therefore destroyed.

  Second, many archaeologists felt that the financial support for archaeological research was inadequate. For most of the twentieth century, archaeology was funded mostly through government funds and grants, which allowed archaeologists to investigate a handful of the most important sites but which left hundreds of other interesting projects without support. Furthermore, changing government priorities brought about periodic reductions in funding.

  Third, it was difficult to have a career in archaeology. Archaeology jobs were to be found at universities or with a few government agencies, but there were never many positions available. Many people who wanted to become archaeologists ended up pursuing other careers and contributing to archaeological research only as unpaid amateurs.

  Listening

  In 1990, new rules and guidelines were adopted in United Kingdom and that had changed the whole feel of Archaeology in that country. The new guidelines improved the situation in all 3 areas discussed in the passage.

  First, the new guidelines state that before any construction project can start, the construction site has to be examined by archaeologists to see whether the site is of archaeological interest or value. If the site is of archaeological interest, the next step is for the builders, archaeologists and local government officials to get together and make a plan for preserving the archaeological artifacts, either by building around them or by excavating a document in them properly before the construction is allowed to proceed.

  Second, an important part of new guidelines is the rule that any archaeological work done on the construction site will be paid for by the construction company not by the government. The construction company has to pay for the initial examination of the site, and then for all the work carried out under the preservation plan. This is whole new source of financial support. The funding from the construction company has allowed researchers to study a far great range of archaeological sites than they could in past.

  Last, the new guidelines provide a lot of paid work for archaeologists, work that didn’t exist before. Expert archaeologists are now hired all stage of the process to examine the site for archaeological value, then have to drop the preservation plan to do the researcher and professional scientific manner and finally to process the data and write reports and articles. The increased job career opportunities in Archaeology have increased the number professional archaeologists in Britain which is now the highest it’s ever been.

  一、阅读听力要点概括

  Reading Passage

  Main points: Archaeology was faced with problems in Britain.

  Sub point 1: Valuable artifact were lost in construction.

  Sub point 2: Financial support to archaeology is felt inadequate.

  Sub point 3: It is difficult to have a career in archaeology.

  .

  Lecture

  Attitude: New guidelines have improved the situation.

  Sub Point 1: Archaeologist examines building before construction. (Make a plan)

  Sub Point 2: Company pays for the archaeological work at construction. (New financial support.)

  Sub Point 3: Lot of paid work for archaeologists. (Highest number in Britain.)

  Answers

  二、范文逐段赏析

  Paragraph 1

  The writer of the reading passage pointed out that archaeology in Britain had serious problems and limitations, whereas the professor asserted the opposite by introducing new guidelines, implemented by UK in 1990, that are said to have improved the situation of archaeology.

  此段功能:

  (Listening passage后文提到用L代替)

  (Reading passage后文用R代替)

  以L的观点为主要观点,R的观点是,考古业在英国有十分多问题,但是L补充说1990的新条例已经改变了行业现状。

  此段结构:

  作者分别总结了R观点和L观点,并指出L持相反意见

  Paragraph 2

  First, the new guidelines provide that a construction site be examined of its archaeological interest before any project planned on it can proceed. If the site holds archaeological value, relevant parties must provide a preservation plan to protect its value. This measure successfully addresses the first problem mentioned in the reading: the loss of precious artifacts resulting from construction projects.

  此段功能:

  以L中的新政策起头,建筑工地首先要经过考古人员勘测才能动工。在有文物的地方,相关部门必须做出保护计划。这项新措施有力的保护了R中的漏洞,珍贵文物不会被随意摧毁了。

  此段结构:

  此段为分总结构,先写L中的新政策,再写具体措施。指出其修补的R的漏洞,达到反驳R的目的。

  Paragraph 3

  Second, the new guidelines state that the construction companies must fund any archaeological work done on the construction site, from the initial examination to the following work under the preservation plan. This rule provides a new source of financial support for archaeologists. It also allows more archaeological sites to be studied, which solves another problem listed in the reading: inadequate funding.

  此段功能:

  还是以L的新政策起头,新政规定公司必须资助工地的考古行动,从开始检测到完善计划。这样就给考古业开辟了一个新的资金资助。从而解决了R中的问题:对考古业不公平的资助。

  此段结构:

  此段为分总结构。还是先写L中的新政策,再写具体措施。指出其修补的R的漏洞,达到反驳R的目的。

  Paragraph 4

  Third, the new guidelines create many more jobs in archaeology. These experts are hired at various stages of the process, which stages can include examination, preservation, research and documentation. Increased career opportunities in this field boost the number of professional archaeologists to the highest and eliminates the last problem in the reading: insufficient jobs in the field.

  此段功能:

  引出第三点,L说新政能开辟更多考古工作。在考古业的层层工作中雇佣了许多专家,例如检验,保存,研究和档案。更好的职业机会使得行业繁荣,消除了R中的问题:考古业没有足够的工作机会。

  此段结构:

  总分结构。第一句总结L观点。第二句陈列L的详细证据。最后说明R的不正确性。

  三、范文全篇总评

  1、 逻辑结构

  全文遵从总分结构,开头段总结新政和新政的作用,展开全文反驳基调。

  随后三段依照3个分论点依次展开。在分论点的论证中,作者明细了L的证据政策,最后自然的结果是把R的漏洞全部堵住,达到反驳R的效果。

  2、语言表达

  此文用词流畅,句式结构紧密,其中值得借鉴的有:

  1. whereas the (人物B) asserted the opposite by…(观点B)

  2. address (文中为处理的意思)

  /handle/fix/

  The new law addresses the recent type of internet crime.

  3. Boost: 快速增大

  /Increase/

  The stock price boosted after the introduction of new type technology.

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