A recent study reveals that people especially young people are reading far less literature—novels, plays, and poems—than they used to. This is troubling because the trend has unfortunate effects for the reading public, for culture in general, and for the future of literature itself.

  While there has been a decline in book reading generally, the decline has been especially sharp for literature. This is unfortunate because nothing else provides the intellectual stimulation that literature does. Literature encourages us to exercise our imaginations, empathize with others, and expand our understanding of language. So by reading less literature, the reading public is missing out on important benefits.

  Unfortunately, missing out on the benefits of literature is not the only problem. What are people reading instead? Consider the prevalence of self-help books on lists of best sellers. These are usually superficial poorly written, and intellectually undemanding. Additionally, instead of sitting down with a challenging novel, many persons are now more likely to turn on the television, watch a music video, or read a Web page. Clearly, diverting time previously spent in reading literature to trivial forms of entertainment has lowered the level of culture in general.

  The trend of reading less literature is all the more regrettable because it is taking place during a period when good literature is being written. There are many talented writers today, but they lack an audience. This fact is bound to lead publishers to invest less in literature and so support fewer serious writers. Thus, the writing as well as the reading of literature is likely to decline because of the poor standards of today's readers.



  It is often said that people are reading less literature today than they used to. What should of this?

  Well first, a book doesn't have to be literature to be intellectually stimulating. Science writing history, political analysis and so forth aren't literature perhaps, but they are often of high quality and these kinds of books can be just as creative and well-written as a novel or a play They can stimulate the imagination. So don't assume that someone who isn't reading literature isn’t reading a good book.

  But let's say that people aren't just spending less time with literature, they are also spending less time with books in general. Does that mean that the culture is in decline? No, there's plenty of culturally valuable material that isn't written - music and movies, for example. Are people wasting their time when they listen to a brilliant song or watch a good movie? Do these non-literary activities lower cultural standards? Of course not. Culture has changed. In today's culture, there are many forms of expression available other than novels and poems. And some of these creative forms speak more directly to contemporary concerns than literature does.

  Finally, it's probably true that there's less support for literature today than in earlier generations.

  But don't be too quick to blame the readers. Sometimes it's the author's faults. Let's be honest. A lot of modern literature is intended to be difficult to understand. Here is not much reason to suppose that earlier generations of readers would have read a lot of today's literature either.


  Reading Passage

  Main points: Reading less among young people has unfortunate effects.

  Sub point 1: Decline sharp for literature cause missing out on important benefits.

  Sub point 2: Diverting time has lowered the level of culture.

  Sub point 3: Writing is likely to decline since poor standards of readers.


  Attitude: Why?

  Sub Point 1:Doesn't have to be literature to be intellectually stimulating. (History, Political, creative, imagination.)

  Sub Point 2: Less time with book does not mean culture is in decline. (Music and movies, more directly.)

  Sub Point 3: Writers write modern literature difficult to understand.



  Paragraph 1

  The lecturer raises several arguments to counter the reading passage’s strong criticism of the public’s declining interest in literature.


  (Listening passage后文提到用L代替)

  (Reading passage后文用R代替)




  Paragraph 2

  The lecturer argues that literature is only one among many genres from which the public can benefit intellectually. The public also benefits from reading works of science fiction and historical novels, among others genres. Therefore, the reading passage is wrong to claim that the public is suffering great losses by not reading literature.





  Paragraph 3

  Furthermore, the lecturer explains that even if it is true that the public is reading fewer books and watching more television and films instead, this does not necessarily mean that culture is in decline. Television and film are simply modern forms of cultural expression that are also intellectually stimulating and directly relevant to contemporary life.





  Finally, the lecturer admits a decline in audience and support of literature in today’s society, but she attributes it to the authors themselves. She says they have alienated themselves from the reading public by using overly complex language, structure, and content. The reading, in contrast, blames the lowered standards of the public for the declining interest in reading great works of literature.






  1、 逻辑结构




  1. Genres:类型,流派


  His favorite genre of music is Rock.

  2. Stimulating: 刺激的


  It is a stimulating job outside the school.

  3. Attributes:把….归于


  Success can be attributes to hard work and a little good luck.

  4. Alienate: 使疏远


  The policy alienate the rich more from the poor.