In an effort to encourage ecologically sustainable forestry practices, an international organization started issuing certifications to wood companies that meet high ecological standards by conserving resources and recycling materials. Companies that receive this certification can attract customers by advertising their products as eco-certified. Around the world, many wood companies have adopted new, ecologically friendly practices in order to receive eco-certification. However, it is unlikely that wood companies in the United States will do the same, for several reasons.

  First, American consumers are exposed to so much advertising that they would not value or even pay attention to the eco-certification label. Because so many mediocre products are labeled 'new" or improved,'' American consumers do not place much trust in advertising claims in general.

  Second, eco-certified wood will be more expensive than uncertified wood because in order to earn eco-certification, a wood company must pay to have its business examined by a certification agency. This additional cost gets passed on to consumers-American consumers tend to be strongly motivated by price, and therefore they are likely to choose cheaper uncertified wood products. Accordingly, American wood companies will prefer to keep their prices low rather than obtain eco-certification.

  Third, although some people claim that it always makes good business sense for American companies to keep up with the developments in the rest of the world, this argument is not convincing. Pursuing certification would make sense for American wood companies only if they marketed most of their products abroad. But that is not the case—American wood businesses sell most of their products in the United States, catering to a very large customer base that is satisfied with the merchandise.


  Well, despite what many people say, there is a good reason to think that many American wood companies will eventually seek eco-certification for the wood products.

  First off, companies in the United States don't treat all advertising the same. They distinguish between advertising claims that companies make about their own products and claims made by independent certification agencies. Americans have a lot of confidence in independent agencies. Thus ecological-minded Americans are likely to react very favorably to wood products ecologically certified by independent organization with an international reputation for trustworthiness.

  Second point, of course it is true that American consumers care a lot about price ,who doesn't? But studies of how consumers make decisions show that price alone determines consumers' decisions only when the price of one competing products is much higher or lower than the other. When the difference between two products is small, say, less than 5 percent, as is the case with certified wood, American often do choose on factories other than price. And Americans are becoming increasingly convinced of the value of preserving and protecting the environment.

  And third, US Wood companies should definitely pay attention what is going on in the wood business internationally. Not because of foreign consumers but because of foreign competitors. As I just told you, there is a good chance that many American consumers will be interested in eco-certified products, and guess why? If American companies are slow capturing those consumers, you can be sure that foreign companies will soon start crowding into the American markets ,offering eco-certified wood that domestic companies don't.


  Reading Passage

  Main points: US companies may not adopt the eco-certification.

  Sub point 1: US consumers would not value or pay attention to the label.

  Sub point 2: Certified wood will be more expensive and US consumers are strongly motivated by price.

  Sub point 3: American wood companies sell products in the US.


  Attitude: US wood companies will eventually seek eco-certification.

  Sub Point 1: Lot of confidence in independent agencies. (React favorably to certified product.)

  Sub Point 2: American value preserving and protecting the environment.

  Sub Point 3: Wood companies should pay attention internationally. (Foreign competitors, consumers need brands.)



  Paragraph 1

  The lecture and the reading passage present contradictory opinions on the topic of eco-certification, a form of accreditation conferred by on international agency in recognition of a company’s eco-friendly practices. The reading passage explains that it is not necessary for American lumber companies to pursue eco-certification, while the lecture provides several counterarguments for why the opposite is the case.


  (Listening passage后文提到用L代替)

  (Reading passage后文用R代替)




  Paragraph 2

  First, the lecturer argues that the reading passage is too general in its statement that American consumers reject advertising completely. He asserts that Americans do not trust advertising claims for a product when these claims are made by the company that sells the product. When a claim is made by an independent third party, such as a wood certification company, he posits, consumers respond very positively with a stronger acceptance of the certified product.





  Paragraph 3

  The lecturer also refutes the second point in the reading: that price-sensitive American consumers are likely to choose inexpensive wood products regardless of certification. The professor contends that certified wood is only slightly (less than 5%) more expensive than uncertified wood, and therefore, he argues, consumers will tend to ignore the price difference and choose the eco-friendly product.





  Paragraph 4

  Finally, receiving eco-certification is, according to the professor, an effective strategy used by
 American wood companies to ensure that their products can compete against ecocertified wood products imported into the domestic market from foreign countries. According to the reading, however, this strategy is unnecessary because American consumers are likely to prefer domestically manufactured products, even if they are not ecocertified.






  1、 逻辑结构




  1. Lumber: 木材


  2. Posit: 假设,安置


  Religion posits the existence life after death.