综合写作7

  Reading

  In an effort to encourage ecologically sustainable forestry practices, an international organization started issuing certifications to wood companies that meet high ecological standards by conserving resources and recycling materials. Companies that receive this certification can attract customers by advertising their products as eco-certified. Around the world, many wood companies have adopted new, ecologically friendly practices in order to receive eco-certification. However, it is unlikely that wood companies in the United States will do the same, for several reasons.

  First, American consumers are exposed to so much advertising that they would not value or even pay attention to the eco-certification label. Because so many mediocre products are labeled 'new" or improved,'' American consumers do not place much trust in advertising claims in general.

  Second, eco-certified wood will be more expensive than uncertified wood because in order to earn eco-certification, a wood company must pay to have its business examined by a certification agency. This additional cost gets passed on to consumers-American consumers tend to be strongly motivated by price, and therefore they are likely to choose cheaper uncertified wood products. Accordingly, American wood companies will prefer to keep their prices low rather than obtain eco-certification.

  Third, although some people claim that it always makes good business sense for American companies to keep up with the developments in the rest of the world, this argument is not convincing. Pursuing certification would make sense for American wood companies only if they marketed most of their products abroad. But that is not the case—American wood businesses sell most of their products in the United States, catering to a very large customer base that is satisfied with the merchandise.

  Listening

  Well, despite what many people say, there is a good reason to think that many American wood companies will eventually seek eco-certification for the wood products.

  First off, companies in the United States don't treat all advertising the same. They distinguish between advertising claims that companies make about their own products and claims made by independent certification agencies. Americans have a lot of confidence in independent agencies. Thus ecological-minded Americans are likely to react very favorably to wood products ecologically certified by independent organization with an international reputation for trustworthiness.

  Second point, of course it is true that American consumers care a lot about price ,who doesn't? But studies of how consumers make decisions show that price alone determines consumers' decisions only when the price of one competing products is much higher or lower than the other. When the difference between two products is small, say, less than 5 percent, as is the case with certified wood, American often do choose on factories other than price. And Americans are becoming increasingly convinced of the value of preserving and protecting the environment.

  And third, US Wood companies should definitely pay attention what is going on in the wood business internationally. Not because of foreign consumers but because of foreign competitors. As I just told you, there is a good chance that many American consumers will be interested in eco-certified products, and guess why? If American companies are slow capturing those consumers, you can be sure that foreign companies will soon start crowding into the American markets ,offering eco-certified wood that domestic companies don't.

  一、阅读听力要点概括

  Reading Passage

  Main points: US companies may not adopt the eco-certification.

  Sub point 1: US consumers would not value or pay attention to the label.

  Sub point 2: Certified wood will be more expensive and US consumers are strongly motivated by price.

  Sub point 3: American wood companies sell products in the US.

  Lecture

  Attitude: US wood companies will eventually seek eco-certification.

  Sub Point 1: Lot of confidence in independent agencies. (React favorably to certified product.)

  Sub Point 2: American value preserving and protecting the environment.

  Sub Point 3: Wood companies should pay attention internationally. (Foreign competitors, consumers need brands.)

  Answers

  二、范文逐段赏析

  Paragraph 1

  The lecture and the reading passage present contradictory opinions on the topic of eco-certification, a form of accreditation conferred by on international agency in recognition of a company’s eco-friendly practices. The reading passage explains that it is not necessary for American lumber companies to pursue eco-certification, while the lecture provides several counterarguments for why the opposite is the case.

  此段功能:

  (Listening passage后文提到用L代替)

  (Reading passage后文用R代替)

  开头段说道L和R关于一个环保牌照持相反意见,随后解释了环保牌照是一家国际环保机构颁发的。R认为美国木材公司不需要此牌照,但是L认为相反。

  此段结构:

  开头段作者先展示了L和R的对立关系,解释了对立的原因和分别复述了L,R各自的立场。

  Paragraph 2

  First, the lecturer argues that the reading passage is too general in its statement that American consumers reject advertising completely. He asserts that Americans do not trust advertising claims for a product when these claims are made by the company that sells the product. When a claim is made by an independent third party, such as a wood certification company, he posits, consumers respond very positively with a stronger acceptance of the certified product.

  此段功能:

  在第一点的论证上,作者说R认为美国顾客排斥广告太泛泛了。L解释美国人不相信那些自己公司做广告卖自己产品的,但是当证明是第三方机构,例如一个木材验证公司,顾客还是反应十分积极的。

  此段结构:

  此段为分总结构,作者先陈述了R的想法,然后用一系列的L的证明来说明R的想法太空洞。

  Paragraph 3

  The lecturer also refutes the second point in the reading: that price-sensitive American consumers are likely to choose inexpensive wood products regardless of certification. The professor contends that certified wood is only slightly (less than 5%) more expensive than uncertified wood, and therefore, he argues, consumers will tend to ignore the price difference and choose the eco-friendly product.

  此段功能:

  作者先写L继续反驳R的第二点:价格敏感的美国人只会选便宜的木头而忽视牌照。L说,环保牌照木头和普通木头差价在5%内,顾客不会注意这种价格差所以会选环保产品。

  此段结构:

  为了写出L反驳R,作者还是先列举了R的论点,用接下来一系列L的新证据,推翻了R。

  Paragraph 4

  Finally, receiving eco-certification is, according to the professor, an effective strategy used by
 American wood companies to ensure that their products can compete against ecocertified wood products imported into the domestic market from foreign countries. According to the reading, however, this strategy is unnecessary because American consumers are likely to prefer domestically manufactured products, even if they are not ecocertified.

  此段功能:

  在第三论段里,L和R继续争论牌照的重要性。作者先说L觉得需要牌照,这样才能保证美国木材企业能在本土市场和国际产品竞争。R认为不必要,因为美国顾客就是喜欢国内自产的,无论有没有牌照。

  此段结构:

  此段为分分结构,作者表达了LR在市场问题理解上的对立情绪后,陈列了双方证据。

  三、范文全篇总评

  1、 逻辑结构

  全文遵从总分结构,开头段说明双方关于牌照需要问题成对立状态,在接下来的三个论段中,依次陈列双方意见,L中做出了推翻性结论的,就如实陈述。在第三点上,L并不能说严格的推翻了R的观点,所以作者也就只陈列双方意见,没有自己增加主观臆断。

  2、语言表达

  文章语言表达朴实,经常用小段的插入句补充论点,或者补充解释,这样使文章面面俱到又不累赘。可以借鉴的词句有:

  1. Lumber: 木材

  /timber/

  2. Posit: 假设,安置

  /Postulate/

  Religion posits the existence life after death.

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