综合写作6

  Reading

  Communal online encyclopedias represent one of the latest resources to be found on the Internet. They are in many respects like traditional printed encyclopedias collections of articles on various subjects. What is specific to these online encyclopedias, however, is that any Internet user can contribute a new article or make an editorial change in an existing one. As a result, the encyclopedia is authored by the whole community of Internet users. The idea might sound attractive, but the communal online encyclopedias have several important problems that make them much less valuable than traditional, printed encyclopedias.

  First, contributors to a communal online encyclopedia often lack academic credentials, thereby making their contributions partially informed at best and downright inaccurate in many cases. Traditional encyclopedias are written by trained experts who adhere to standards of academic rigor that nonspecialists cannot really achieve.

  Second, even if the original entry in the online encyclopedia is correct, the communal nature of these online encyclopedias gives unscrupulous users and vandals or hackers the opportunity to fabricate, delete, and corrupt information in the encyclopedia. Once changes have been made to the original text, an unsuspecting user cannot tell the entry has been tampered with. None of this is possible with a traditional encyclopedia.

  Third, the communal encyclopedias focus too frequently, and in too great a depth, on trivial and popular topics, which creates a false impression of what is important and what is not. A child doing research for a school project may discover that a major historical event receives as much attention in an online encyclopedia as, say, a single long-running television program. The traditional encyclopedia provides a considered view of what topics to include or exclude and contains a sense of proportion that online "democratic" communal encyclopedias do not.

  Listening

  Professor:

  The communal online encyclopedia will probably never be perfect, but that's a small price to pay for what it does offer. The criticisms in the reading are largely the result of prejudice against and ignorance about how far online encyclopedias have come.

  First, errors. It's hardly a fair criticism that encyclopedias online have errors. Traditional encyclopedias have never been close to perfectly accurate, if you are looking for a realty comprehensive reference work without any mistakes, you are not going to find it, on or off line. The real point is that it's easy for errors in factual material to be corrected in an online encyclopedia. But with the printed and bound encyclopedia, the errors remain for decades.

  Second, hacking. Online encyclopedias have recognized the importance of protecting their articles from malicious hackers. One strategy they started using is to put the crucial facts in the articles that nobody disputes in a read-only format, which is a format that no one can make changes to. That way you are making sure that the crucial facts in the articles are reliable. Another strategy that's being used is to have special editors whose job is to monitor all changes made to the articles and eliminate those changes that are clearly malicious.

  Third, what's worth knowing about? The problem for traditional encyclopedias is that they have limited space, so they have to decide what's important and what's not. And in practice, the judgments of the group of academics that make these decisions don't reflect the great range of interests that people really have. But space is definitely not an issue for online encyclopedias. The academic articles are still represented in online encyclopedias, but there can be a great variety of articles and topics that accurately reflect the great diversity of users' interests. The diversity of use in topics that online encyclopedias offer is one of their strongest advantages.

  一、阅读听力要点概括

  Reading Passage

  Main points: Online encyclopedias have several important problems.

  Sub point 1: Lack of academic credentials

  Sub point 2: Can be fabricated, deleted or corrupted.

  Sub point 3: Focus on popular topics and create false impression.

  Lecture

  Attitude: The criticism are prejudice.

  Sub Point 1: Can correct errors in an online encyclopedia.

  Sub Point 2: Crucial facts are read-only. Special editors monitor changes.

  Sub Point 3: Online encyclopedias has no space limit and variety of interests.

  Answers

  二、范文逐段赏析

  Paragraph 1

  The lecturer addresses each of the three criticisms of communal online encyclopedias mentioned in the reading passage.

  此段功能:

  (Listening passage后文提到用L代替)

  (Reading passage后文用R代替)

  作者在开头段表述L即将在后面为在线百科全书的三点批判做出解释。

  此段结构:

  开头段实在非常简单的说出L是持解释态度,解释的内容,为论段做好了铺垫。

  Paragraph 2

  The lecturer admits that communal online encyclopedias, like any reference book, may contain errors, but she then claims that these errors can be corrected much more easily and quickly than those printed in a physical encyclopedia. The reading passage, in contrast, points to the inaccuracy of information in online encyclopedias, presenting the argument that errors in these resources are due to a lack of professional knowledge among contributors.

  此段功能:

  以L为主,作者先陈述L承认在线百科有错误,但是相比于纸质百科书,他们更容易更正。R却说,在线百科不准确,而且贡献者很多缺乏专业知识。

  此段结构:

  此段为分分结构,作者如实重复了L,R相对的观点,就百科全书的准确性做出了各自辩证。

  Paragraph 3

  The lecturer then gives two strategies that have proven very effective in protecting online encyclopedias from malicious alteration. She explains that contents consisting of indisputable facts are stored and presented in a read-only format so that nobody can make changes to them. In addition, she says, there are specialists who constantly monitor contents online so that they can quickly remove suspicious or inaccurate material once it is detected.

  此段功能:

  作者继续陈述关于第二点恶意修改的解释。L说有两种方法制止恶意修改,L说不可争辩的事实是以只读方式呈现的,不可以修改。还有专家专门监控这些更改,他们发现可疑或不准确修改后会快速移出。

  此段结构:

  此段为总分结构,开头就说L有两种解决办法,接下来陈述,作者没有写明,但也达到了反驳R的效果。

  Paragraph 4

  The lecturer also challenges the final point in the reading regarding the nature of topics covered in online encyclopedias. She says that because of virtually unlimited space on the Internet, there is no need to worry about what is important enough for inclusion in an online encyclopedia; everything can be given space.
 Moreover, the greater the variety of topics in online encyclopedias truly reflects the genuine interests of the general public, even if some of these topics are less serious or academic than those in traditional encyclopedias.

  此段功能:

  关于网络百科话题本质的讨论,作者复述到L指出因为网络不存在没有空间的情况,所以网络百科可以给所有话题都留位子。网络百科有很多的话题,可以真实反映大众关心,尽管其中有些话题看起来没有传统百科全书那么严肃和学术。

  此段结构:

  此段为总分结构,作者写出L要挑战R的最后一个指责,随后罗列证据和事实。

  三、范文全篇总评

  1、 逻辑结构

  全文遵从总分结构,开头段直接一句话总结逻辑,开始讨论。

  在分论点的讨论中,作者循序渐进的陈述L和R各自的证据,详细的如实的反映了话题。L有时候同意R所说的,但又做出进一步解释,或者就R的疑惑,做出解释。

  2、语言表达

  本文用词准确,用了一些新单词增添色彩,其中可以借鉴的词句有:

  1. Address:演绎,演说

  /lecture/

  Please address all enquires to this office.

  2. Malicious: 恶意

  /vicious/

  The famous actor was surrounded by malicious gossips.

  3. Genuine: 真实的

  /Authentic/

  A genuine friend will not leave you when you are in trouble.

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