一、阅读听力要点概括

  Reading Passage

  Main points: A mandatory policy requiring companies to offer their employees the option of working a four-day workweek for four-fifths (80 percent) of their normal pay would benefit the economy as a whole as well as the individual companies and the employees who decided to take the option.

  Sub point 1: The shortened workweek would increase company profit.

  Sub point 2: The country as a whole will benefits.

  Sub point 3: The option of a four-day workweek would be better for individual employees.

  Lecture

  Attitude:

  Sub point 1: More money on providing training and medical benefits

  Sub point 2: Higher expectation leads to unpleasant emotion.

  Sub point 3: decrease job stability and harm chances for advancing careers.

  二、范文逐段赏析

  Paragraph 1

  The lecturer claims that the new policy, which allows people to work four days a week instead of five, will have negative effects for companies as well as society. This claim is not in agreement with that of the reading passage, which suggests that such a policy will be beneficial.

  此段功能:

  首段总领全文,奠定了全文的逻辑走向。切记要以L的观点为主体,从L的观点出发,开门见山地引出Reading passage(后文提到则用R代替)和Listening passage(后文提到用L代替)中讨论的核心内容,“四天工作制还是五天工作制的问题”。并且,点明了R/L之间的关系,即not in agreement

  此段结构:

  段落由两句话组成,第一句话总结L中的观点,第二句中直接的说明L和R观点相反,并补充总结R中的观点。两句话都使用从句形式,使得内容总结和逻辑关系可以一并呈现,值得借鉴。

  Paragraph 2

  According to the lecture, a company that allows employees to have fewer working hours is likely to hire more people to ensure that it meets normal levels of productivity. If this occurs, expenses for training and medical insurance will inevitably rise. The reading passage, by contrast, suggests that employees who enjoy more leisure time make fewer mistakes and work more efficiently, leading to increased profits for the enterprise.

  此段功能:

  从L的观点出发,结合L中提到的细节信息分别引出R/L的第一个subtopic(即增员意味着福利支出的提高,进行逻辑推理反驳R的第一个subtopic).

  此段结构:

  此段为总分结构,首句提出L说增员会加大开销。次句则是用自己的语言解释了开销为何会随着增员而增加。随后则是引出R中的观点,并且进行对R的反驳。

  Paragraph 3

  The second point of difference between the lecture and the reading passage concerns the impact of the policy on the unemployment rate. The lecturer asserts that for the sake of saving money, employers might raise their expectations of four-day employees rather than recruit more people. Consequently, employees who work four days will be forced to finish what they previously did in five days, and no additional jobs will be created.

  此段功能:

  直接写出第二个subtopic, 从L的观点出发,具体说明,为了完成任务,4天员工制会被期待4天完成5天任务造成压力,并且不会像R中所提到的为了完成任务,聘用更多员工benefit whole country.

  此段结构:

  此段为总分结构,首句提出第二个sub topic 分别对就业率的影响。第二句还是以L为主,说明4天员工制产生的结果。第三句说明4天员工制在R中的结果。其结果被证明相反。

  Paragraph 4

  Finally, the lecturer argues that under the new policy, employees will experience not only decreased quality of life (as shorter working hours will translate into less pay), but also fewer chances to be promoted to supervisory positions. However, the reading passage contends that more leisure hours can create opportunities to strengthen family ties and allow employees to develop private interests, making them feel more satisfied with their lives.

  此段功能:

  引出第三个sub topic, 既4天员工制在L和R中,分别对quality of life的影响。第一句说L认为此制度降低了生活质量。第二句,在however转折之后,说明R认为制度增加了生活质量。

  此段结构:

  此段为分分结构,并没有首句说明L,R观点相反。直接上半句和下半句很对称的表达了L,R意见相反。

  三、范文全篇总评

  1、 逻辑结构

  整篇文章遵从总分结构,首段提出全文核心(L和R观点相反)之后,找出三个subtopic,三个段落依次展开,以L观点为基础,对R的观点逐一反驳。结构清晰,一目了然。

  每段中反驳的展开也是有理有据。例如正文段第一段,作者以L的第一观点出发,找到L中第一观点涉及到的细节内容(增员导致医药训练费增加)作为证据,找到相对应R的观点的细节(增员会使员工少犯错误减少开支),一比较R的证据非常软弱,论证出“增员不可能达到增加profit”这一结论,使得R的观点苍白无力。注意只写观点相反而不列举证据也是相反,会显得没有说服力。

  2、语言表达

  如果用一个词汇来形容文章语言特点,那么一定是accurate。本文作者并没有运用晦涩复杂的语法,也避免使用过多生僻词汇,完全没有给读者理解逻辑造成任何影响和障碍。

  其中值得借鉴的词语和句式有:

  1. 表示种观点或证据相反:

  (A) is not in agreement with (B)

  类比句型:(A) is in contract to (B), (A) is against with (B), (A) stands the opposite to (B)

  2. 如何利用文中的证据来攻击或者支持观点:

  (…..列举L中的证据细节A).If this occurs, expenses for training and medical insurance will inevitably rise.

  此句以if开始,列举同一个举动(4人上班制度),侧重training或medical insurance会导致的结果(cost升高)。紧接着下一句说明,同样在R中,同样的4人上班制度,侧重leisure time导致cost降低。一个举动,两种观点会产生两种结论;自然而然的自相矛盾。

  3. for the sake of saving money, employers might raise their expectations

  为了达到(xx)目的, 引出为了目的(xx)证据或举措。非常舒适的列举论点的论据的句式。

  类比句式:

  For the purpose of (某结论), (某条件,某细节,需要被做到)

  In order to achieve (某结论),(….)

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