Scientists have learned some interesting things about the intellectual abilities of babies. They say there’s evidence that babies as young as five months old can do basic arithmetic, that they can add. Scientists think babies know one plus one equals two and not one. The evidence is indirect because obviously you can’t ask a five-month old baby to add up some numbers for you.
So they devised an experiment where, um, in this experiment a baby is shown a doll on a table. Ok, so the baby looks at the doll. Then the researcher lowers a screen in front of the doll, so now the doll is hidden behind the screen. But the baby has already seen the doll and, so, knows it’s there.
Well, then the researcher takes a second doll and very obviously places it behind the screen with the first one. Ok, so now you have two dolls behind the screen, right? Well, no, cause what the researcher did was they secretly took away one of the dolls. And then when they raised the screen back up, the baby, well, it expects to see two dolls, right? But there’s only one there!
And guess what? The baby surprised! It expects two but it only sees one. How could the researchers tell that the baby surprised? Well, they recorded the baby’s eye movement on camera. And we know that when a baby is surprised by something, a loud noise or an unexpected flash of light maybe, it stares at where the noise or light is coming from. And that’s what the babies in the experiment did. They stared, cause the babies know if you add one doll and one doll, you should have two dolls. So when it sees one doll, then it stares because it’s surprised.
很清楚我们知道这里的听力内容结构为：1 Topic+1 Experiment+Group1&Group2
intellec abilit babies
a baby shown a doll on a table
hidden behind the screen
2nd doll with 1st one hidden screen
secretly took away one doll
expects to see two dolls
see only one
Surprised ∵eye movement
Using the research described by the professor, explain what scientists have learned about the mathematical abilities of babies.
Using the examples from the talk, explain how persuasive strategies are used in advertising.
Using points and examples from the lecture, explain the two major factors of product quality and how their role in consumer decision-making has changed.
Using the points and examples from the talk, explain how substitute goods and complement goods influence demand for a particular product.
Um, another strategy they use is to get a celebrity to advertise a product. It turns out that we’re more likely to accept an advertisement claim made by somebody famous, a person we admire and find appealing. We tend to think they’re trustworthy. So, uh, you might have a car commercial that features a well-known race car driver. Now, it may not be a very fast car, uh, it could even be an inexpensive vehicle with a low performance rating. But if a popular race car driver is shown driving it and saying, “I like my cars fast!” Then people would believe the car is impressive with its speed.
Another kind of narrator an author might use is an omniscient narrator. In this case, the narrator, the voice that is telling the story, knows everything, and I mean everything about the characters. So, let’s imagine our same man and woman traveling but described by an omniscient narrator. Not only do we, the readers, know what they do and say, but we also know what they’re thinking. For example, we’re told that the couple is going to visit an old friend of the man’s and we learn what the man is thinking that he is nervous because he hasn’t seen his friend in a long time, that he is worried if his wife would like the friend. So an omniscient narrator provides more information and answers questions that the reader might have about the characters or the action.