托福听力的原文翻译,可以帮助大家更深入的了解不同的听力内容,加强听力文章的积累,这些对于我们更有效的提高听力基础,有更好的帮助。具体的这些备考资料内容有哪些?下面小编为大家整理了详细的内容,供大家参考!

  TPO 13 Conversation 1

  Student:Well, I want to talk with you about the research project you have assigned today. I um…I hope you could clarify a few things for me.

  Professor:I’ll certainly try.

  Student:Ok, all we have to do is do two observations and take notes on them, right?

  Professor:Ur, that’s the start, but you need to do some research, too. Then you will write a paper that is not so much about the observations, but a synthesis of what you have observed and read.

  Student:Ok….And what about the children I am suppose to observe?

  Professor:Not children, a single child observed twice.

  Student:Oh…Ok, so I should choose a child with a permission of a child’s parents of course and then observed that child a couple of times and take good notes,then?

  Professor:Actually after your first observation, you go back and look through your textbook or go to a library and find a few sources concerning the stage of development, the particular child is in. Then, with that knowledge, you will make the second observation of the same child to see if these expected developmental behaviors are exhibited.

  Student:Can you give me an example?

  Professor:Well, en, if you observed a 4 year-old child, for example, my daughter is 4 years old; you might read up on cushy stage of cognitive development we covered those in class.

  Student:Aha…

  Professor:And most likely, what stage would a child of that age be in?

  Student:Um… the pre-operational stage?

  Professor:Exactly, if that’s the case, her languages used to be maturing and her memory and imagination would be developed.

  Student::So she might play pretend like she can pretend when driving her toy car across a couch that the couch is actually a bridge or something.

  Professor:That is right. In addition, her thinking would be primarily egocentric.

  Student:So she would be thinking mostly about herself and her own needs, and might not be able to see things from anyone else perspective.

  Professor:En hums…

  Student:But what if she doesn’t? I mean, what if she doesn’t demonstrate those behaviors?

  Professor:That’s fine; you’ll note that in your paper. See, your paper should compare what is expected of children at certain stages of development with what you actually observed.

  Student:Ok, I have one more question now.

  Professor:What’s that?

  Student:Where can I find a child to observe?

  Professor:Ur, I suggest you contact the education department secretary. She has a list of contacts at various schools and with certain families who are somehow connected to the university. Sometimes they are willing to help out students with projects like yours.

  Student:Ok, I’ll stop by the educational department office this afternoon.

  Professor:And if you have any trouble or any more questions, feel free to come by during my office hours.

  《对话》

  教授:下午好,Alex,我可以帮助你吗?

  学生:嗯,我想跟你谈谈你今天留的研究项目的作业。我希望你可以帮我弄清楚几个事。

  教授:我会试着帮忙。

  学生:好吧。我们要做的就是做两组观察然后记下笔记,对吗?

  教授:嗯。这只是个开始。接着你需要做一些调查。然后你写的论文跟你的观察关系不大,而是你结合观察的和阅读的内容。

  学生:好吧。那我观察的那些孩子呢?

  教授:不是那些孩子。是一个孩子,要观察两次。

  学生:噢,好吧。那么我是不是应该先征得孩子家长关于这个项目的同意,然后再观察几次这个孩子,再好好做笔记呢?

  教授:事实上,在你的第一次观察之后,你要回去通读你的教材,或者去图书馆找一些有关这个孩子所处的发展阶段的资料。接着,有了足够的知识,你再去找同一个孩子做第二次观察,看预测的发展行为跟孩子所展示的是否一样。

  学生:你能给我举个例子吗?

  教授:嗯,如果你观察一个 4 岁的孩子,比方说,我的女儿就是 4 岁。你可以读我们课上讲过的 XX 阶段(发展心理学术语)的认知发展的书。

  学生:原来如此。

  教授:而且这个年龄的孩子最可能是处于什么阶段?

  学生:嗯,前可行动时期(pre-operational stage)?

  教授:对。如果如此,那么她的语言运用应该日渐成熟,而且她的记忆和想象力正在发展。

  学生:所以她可以假装她在开着她的玩具车穿过沙发,想象那个沙发其实是座桥或者什么别的东西。

  教授:没错。而且她的思维会很基本,以自我为中心。

  学生:所以她主要会想她自己的需求,而不会去从别人的视角看待问题。

  教授:对。

  学生:但如果她不是呢?我的意思是,如果她不展示这样的行为呢?

  教授:那没关系。你将在你的论文里标注出来。你看,你的论文应该对比你期望孩子在特定阶段的发展和你事实上观察到的。

  学生:好的,我还有一个问题。

  教授:什么问题?

  学生:我上哪儿去找小孩观察呢?

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