Marcel Duchamp


  他的例子几乎可以用到所有跟艺术相关的题目,其他类的部分题目也可以用(比如创新,outsider什么的—用来做补充:不需要是外来者,只要保持观念开放依然可以成就breaking through的achievement)

  背景:French-born American artist (though he always denied being “an artist”)

  His works had a major impact to the direction of 20 century art. All his life, he changed the form of art as well as himself. He introduced the European movement Cubism(立体主义) and dada(达达主义) to United States, and was influential in surrealist(超现实主义,很有名的达利就是搞这个的) movement.

  此外他还和installation art(装置艺术), concept art(概念艺术)这些现在很火的艺术形式有关

  泉的例子:Fountain, an ordinary, mass-produced urinal that has been transformed into a work of art simply by being exhibited in a gallery and receiving a new title.

  他说过一句话,Art may be bad, good or indifferent, but, whatever adjective is used, we must call it art, and bad art is still art in the same way as a bad emotion is still an emotion.

  可以用来扩展解释他思想的开放,同时把art和形容词换掉也是很好的 辨证类型的 GRE句子





  The slaughter of World War I affected artists in different ways. Some felt, as Mondrian did, that human betterment lay in the creation of an impersonal, mechanistic way of life. Still others concluded that the very idea of human betterment was a pointless illusion. For this group, the main lesson of the war, if anything, was the bankruptcy of reason, politics, technology, and even art itself. On this premise, several artists and poets founded a movement whose name, dada, was purposely meaningless, and whose members ridiculed anything having to do with culture, politics, or aesthetics



  《Guernica》 The painting’s color scheme proved effective for conveying the cruel reality

  Spanish painter Picasso created the masterpiece when he heard of the bombing ofGuernica during Spanish Civil War


  伦勃朗Rembrandt, 维梅尔Vermeer (荷兰黄金时期的两个大师,手法创新,在光影表现上都有独到之处。都不受同时代人重视,很符合大家心目中艺术家的Stereotype,可以用来替换梵高、毕加索这类妇孺皆知的大佬)


  Rembrandt, Dutch baroque artist, who ranks as one of the greatest painters in the history of Western art. His work made an enormous impact on his contemporaries and influenced the style of many later artists. Perhaps no painter has ever equaled Rembrandt's chiaroscuro effectsor his bold impasto.

  Vermeer(不知道大家看过《戴珍珠耳环的女孩》girl with a pearl earring吗,就是说他的,不过故事是假的,Vermeer的日子可能比电影里更惨)

  Jan Vermeer reputed the greatest painter besides Rembrandt in Dutch Golden Age, had a marvelous ability in expressing lights and shadow, but he died young left his family no legacy but deep debt. During his lifetime, he had not sold one piece of his paintings. After his death Vermeer did not receive attention until the late 19th century. His reputation steadily increased thereafter, and today he is considered one of the greatest Dutch painters.


  跨专业领域,outsider achievement的文章很适用

  M.C. Escher (艾舍尔,就是画图形渐变、现实中不存在的空间的画的人,很牛,也很神经质,他只上过中学,作品却很受数学家推崇。)

  Dutch M.C Escher leaps from art to mathematics. Escher had no formal mathematical training beyond secondary school, but his fantastic print works, such as Escher Limit Cycle and Day and Night, are most greatly admired by mathematicians, who recognized his work an extraordinary visualization of mathematics principles, and considered him a part of them.


  Benoit Mandelbort was a scientist at IBM Watson Research Center. On his retirement from IBM, he joined the Yale Department of Mathematics. By now, you can tell any connections between him and art. Nonetheless, he has created a new geometry of nature called fractal that is centered in physics and mathematics, and being reputed as a innovative form of art. The explanation is that artist and scientist are expressing in distinct methods but journeying the same destination, such as balance, harmony, symmetry, and the like.



  Louvre, national art museum of France.

  Chinese-born American architect I. M. Pei designed this controversial glass pyramid (completed in 1989) at the entrance to the Louvre, a museum in Paris, France. Noted for his unique arrangements of geometric shapes, Pei also earned a reputation for his creative use of space, surfaces, and materials. One of the foremost architects of the 20th century, Pei has designed important public and corporate buildings throughout the world and has worked with urban renewal.