What point does the professor make when he mentions XXX?
According to the professor, what have the researchers agreed on?
What does the professor say about XXX?
对话或者讲座中的举例一般都是细节题喜欢考察的点。它的提示词要么是for example, for instance, like, in this case这类的连接词，要么是具体的事例的名词。
What example does the professor give of a meme’s longevity?
l A story has been changing since it first appeared in the 1930s
l A person remembers a story for many years
l A gene is passed on through many generations without changing
l A song quickly becomes popular all over the world
First, longevity. A replicator must exist long enough to be able to get copied, and transfer its information. Clearly, the longer a replicator survives, the better its chances of getting its message copied and passed on. So longevity is a key characteristic of a replicator. If you take the alligator story, it can exist for a long time in individual memory, let’s say, my memory. I can tell you the story now or ten years from now, the same with the twinkle, twinkle song. So these memes have longevity because they are memorable for one reason or another.
在听力中经常会出现一些专有名词，有些专有名词一带而过，有些专有名词会在后面给出解释，如果我们听到带有解释的专有名词，就需要提起注意，因为它可能是一个考点。它的提示词有：it refers to，that is，that means，This is to say，in other words，in another words等。
What started the runway effect that led to the Sahara area of north Africa becoming a desert
l the prevailing winds became stronger
l the seasonal rains moved to a different area
l the vegetation started to die off in large areas
l the soil lost its ability to retain rainwater
What the Sahara experienced was um…a sort of“runaway drying effect”. As I said the monsoon migrated itself, so there was less rain in the Sahara. The land started to get drier, which in turn caused huge decrease in the amount of vegetation, because vegetation doesn’t grow as well in dry soil, right? And then, less vegetation means the soil can’t hold water as well, the soil loses its ability to retain water when it does rain. So then you have less moisture to help clouds form, nothing to evaporate for cloud formation. And then the cycle continues, less rain, drier soil, less vegetation, fewer clouds, less rain etc. etc..
教授说完“runaway drying effect”之后，并没有转移话题，而是接着介绍了这个effect的过程到底是什么样的。如果我们能听到“runaway drying effect”之后的解释，那么这道题也可以迎刃而解。